Influence of naked neck and frizzle genes on the quality characteristics of fresh and stored table eggs

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A study was carried out to determine the influence of the naked neck (Na) and frizzle traits (F) on the internal and external quality characteristics of table eggs. Normal feathered birds were used as the control. A total of 864 table eggs (288 each) collected from naked neck (Nanaff), frizzle (nanaFf) and normal feathered birds (nanaff) were used in the study. The birds were kept at Akate Farms in Kumasi Ghana. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in a 3x2x4x2 factorial was applied on the three phenotypes, two storage temperatures (Room 26oC and Refrigerator 5oC), four storage durations (7, 14, 21 and 28d) and two storage methods (with or without vegetable oil application on the eggs). Egg weight, egg length, egg width, albumen height, albumen weight, shell thickness, shell weight, yolk height, yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk colour and Haugh unit were the characteristics studied. Proximate composition and nutritional values of table eggs from the three phenotypes were determined as well. Naked neck (Nanaff) recorded significantly (p<0.05) thicker shell (0.31cm) than frizzle (nanaFf) and normal feathered (nanaff). Frizzle (nanaFf) also recorded significantly heavier yolk weight (p<0.05) than naked neck (Nanaff) and normal feathered (nanaff). The lowest shell thickness was recorded for eggs stored at room temperature for 28days. Eggs stored with vegetable oil application recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) values for albumen height, albumen weight, egg weight, yolk weight, yolk colour, yolk height and Haugh unit than those eggs without vegetable oil application during storage. Albumen height, albumen weight, yolk height and yolk weight values for eggs stored in a refrigerator were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding values for eggs stored under room temperature. Naked neck eggs stored in a refrigerator for 7 days recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight values as compared to those of frizzle eggs and normal feathered birds stored in a refrigerator for 7 days, while normal feather recorded higher eggs weight values than frizzle. Eggs stored in a refrigerator with vegetable oil application from 7 days to 28 days recorded higher yolk height values (p<0.05) than those eggs stored under room temperature with vegetable oil application from 7 days to 28 days. It can therefore be concluded that naked neck and frizzle genotypes influence egg quality characteristics under hot and humid environmental conditions. And that refrigerator and vegetable oil maintain better egg quality during storage.
A thesis submitted to The Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Mphil), Animal Breeding and Genetics,