Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in meat and dairy products in Kumasi

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Cheese samples from three communities in Kumasi (Tafo, Asawasi, and Aboabo), milk and yoghurt from Kumasi Polytechnic and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Campuses as well as meat from Kumasi and Buoho abattoirs were analysed for organochlorine pesticide (Lindane, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endosuffan, DDT and DDE) residues. The organochlorine pesticide residues were extracted from the samples through solvent partitioning, clean-up using C-18 bond elut and residue analysis performed by Capillary Gas Chromatograph equipped with Electron Capture Detector. Organochlorine residues were found in all the samples. The average concentrations of lindane, aldrin, endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, and p,p-DDT residues in beef fat from Kumasi were 4.03 μg/kg, 2.06 μg/kg, 21.35 μg/kg, 118.45 μg/kg, 5.23 μg/kg, and 545.22 μg /kg respectively. The levels of these residues in beef fat taken from Buoho were, respectively, 1.79 μg/kg lindane, 4.11 μg/kg aldrin, 2.28 μg/kg endosulfan, 31.89 μg/kg DDE, 6.01 μg/kg dieldrin and 403.82 μg/kg DDT. Lean meat from Kumasi abattoir recorded mean levels of 2.07 μg/kg lindane, 1.43 μg/kg aldrin, 1.88 μg/kg endosulfan, 42.93 μg/kg DDE, 5.92 μg/kg dieldrin and 18.83 μg/kg DDT whilst that from Buoho recorded 0.60 μg/kg Lindane, 0.73 μg/kg aldrin, 0.59 μg/kg Endosulfan, 5.86 μg/kg DDE, 11.48 μg/kg dieldrin and 10.82 μg/kg DDT. DDT and DDE residues were detected in all the yoghurt samples analysed. Yoghurt from the Commercial Area of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Campus had an average concentration of 0.03 μg/kg lindane, 0.03 μg/kg aldrin, 0.06 μg/kg endosulfan, 0.55 pg/kg DDE, 0.02 μg/kg dieldrin and 4.09 μg/kg DDT. Yoghurt from Ayeduasi gate, KNUST, recorded a mean of 8.96 pg/kg DDT, 0.14 μg/kg dieldrin, 1.60 μg/kg DDE, 0.05 μg/kg endosulfan, 0.08 μg/kg aldrin. Lindane level in yoghurt from Ayeduasi gate was below detection. The average amounts of residues in yoghurt from Kumasi Polytechnic Campus were 0.01 μg/kg lindane, 0.09 μg/kg aldrin, 0.06 μg/kg endosuifan, 0.49 μg/kg DDE, 0.02 μg/kg dieldrin and 752 μg/kg DDT. The mean levels or organochlorine residues in cheese from Tafo were 4.41 μg/kg lindane, 1.54 μg/kg aldrin, 4.25 μg/kg endosulfan, 140.15 μg/kg DDE, 15.95 μg/kg dieldrin and 298.57 μg/kg DDT. There was an average level of 3.18 μg/kg aldrin, 2.70 μg/kg endosulfan, 31.50 μg/kg DDE, 2.01 μg/kg dieldrin and 42.17 μg/kg DDT in cheese from Asawasi. Cheese from Aboabo recorded the mean levels 2.35 μg/kg aldrin, 3.31 μg/kg endosulfan, 149.07 μg/kg DDE, 4.30 μg/kg dieldrin and 14.02 μg/kg DDT. Lindane was below detection in cheese from Aboabo and Asawasi. Levels of DDT and its metabolite, DDE, in cheese from all the three sampling sites (Aboabo, Asawasi and Tafo) were above the levels recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). The average levels of DDT residue in beef fat from Buoho and Kumasi abattoirs were also very close to the maximum limits. Although, most of the organochiorine residues detected were below the maximum limits set by the FAQ/WHO, bioaccumulation of these residues is likely to pose health problems in higher organisms like human beings.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science in Analytical Chemistry, 2003