Dietary Risk Assessment due to Bisphenol A (BPA) in Fante Kenkey

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The relative inexpensiveness of plastics has contributed to its ubiquity. Plastics are used as packaging materials for several food products. Inherent in these plastics is Bisphenol A, a chemical with estrogen-mimicking properties. The continuous use of plastic films as a primary packaging material for Fante kenkey is a worry, as Bisphenol A may leach from the plastic films into the Fante kenkey. This study set out to determine the risks associated within the consumption of Fante kenkey wrapped in plastic films. A dietary questionnaire was used to collect information on the consumption of Fante kenkey in the study area. Fante kenkey samples were homogenised and Bisphenol A extracted using acetonitrile as part of a QuEChERS method. Extracts were then analyzed using a Cecil-Adept Binary Pump HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) coupled with a Shimadzu fluorescence detector. Bisphenol A was detected in 54% of the samples analyzed, with a range from 5.5×10-8 mg/g to 3.155×10-6 mg/g. The Palisade @Risk software was used to run a Monte Carlo simulation at 1000,000 iterations to obtain the risks. Chronic daily intake of Bisphenol A among consumers had a mean, median and mode of 6.278×10-7, 2.453×10-7 and 1.022×10-7 respectively. The Hazard quotients presented in the study were all below 1, indicating no significant risk associated with the consumption of Fante kenkey containing Bisphenol A. Margin of exposure values were also above 10,000 indicating a low public health concern. Though the population under study is at no significant risks, producers of Fante kenkey must be encouraged to desist from the use of plastic films as a packaging material.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science in Food Quality Management.