Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment among Patients Attending the Cardiac Clinic at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi

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Over the last ten years, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have risen to be among the top causes of admission and institutional deaths in Ghana. Assessment of an individual’s “total” predicted risk of developing a CVD event in 5 or 10 years using risk scores has been identified as one of the ways to determine the burden of CVD risk and to guide treatment decisions. However, there is little information on the assessment of “total” cardiovascular disease risk in Kumasi. The objective of this study therefore was to assess the ten year cardiovascular disease risk among patients attending the cardiac clinic of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending the cardiac clinic of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, aged 30 – 84years. Four hundred and forty one hospital records of patients without overt cardiovascular disease but attending the cardiac clinic were randomly selected and reviewed. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment was based on the most recent Framingham Risk Score by D’Agostino et al., 2008. The prevalence of low, medium and high total CVD risk were 41.5% (95% C I 36.9 – 46.1), 28.1% (95% C I 24.0 – 32.3) and 30.4% (95% C I 26.1 – 34.7) respectively. More men were at moderate to total CVD high risk compared to females (64% vs 52.2%, p value for trend = 0.003). Increase in Body Mass Index, alcohol consumption and triglycerides did not show a significant trend with increase in total CVD risk (p= 0.492; p=0.820; p=0.057) respectively. Being male, aged, diabetic, a smoker and having high LDL-C levels coupled with low HDL-C levels were significantly associated with high total 10year CVD risk.
A Thesis Submitted to the Department Of Community Health, School Of Medical Sciences, College Of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology-Kumasi, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Public Health (MPH) In Health Education and Promotion.
Total cardiovascular disease risk, Kumasi, Framingham Risk Score