Groundwater quality and potential analysis using geospatial techniques: The case of Ashanti Region in Ghana

The ecosystem and economy’s reliance on clean water is influenced by various factors such as geology, topography, soil types, activities, and the presence of plants and animals. The Ghana Water Company is encountering difficulties in delivering water to consumers in the Ashanti Region due to the shortage of surface water resources, leading to water rationing in the area. Furthermore, poor waste disposal practices, illegal mining, use of fertilizers, and industrial activities have resulted in surface and groundwater source damage. Therefore, there is a need to implement a reliable, simple, and timely method to assess groundwater quality. This study aims to employ GIS and RS techniques to evaluate groundwater quality and potential in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. The Water Quality Index (WQI) was estimated using pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), Chloride, Total Hardness (TH), Nitrate, Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, and Electrical Conductivity (EC). The study then used the WQI distribution to conduct a groundwater potential analysis to identify suitable areas for borehole placement. Digital thematic layers and maps were developed to expose the spatial distribution of water quality parameters, enabling the identification of groundwater pollution control and remedial measures. The study estimated the region’s groundwater potential using an integrated GIS and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) technique, grouping under excellent, good, fair, and poor potential. The WQI in the Ashanti Region ranged from 5.208 to 134.232, with 32.252% of the study area having an excellent WQI and 60.168% of the study area having a good WQI. Poor water quality covered 7.550% of the study area. The results showed that the GIS-based AHP approach accurately mapped the spatial distribution of WQI and Groundwater Potential Zones (GWPZ). This information is helpful to planners in water resource management in groundwater exploration and future planning. Policymakers and stakeholders must ensure that groundwater sources are protected from pollution.
Marfo, J.N., Quaye-Ballard, J.A., Kwakye, S.O., Obeng, K., Arko-Adjei, A., Quaye-Ballard, N.L. and Quao, R.N.A., Groundwater Quality and Potential Analysis Using Geospatial Techniques: The Case Of Ashanti Region in Ghana. Heliyon, 10(6).