Production of tech process low-cost high protein beverage base from two cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Varieties Cv. Asetena Pa and Adom

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Cowpea is a high protein legume, which provides food security for the people of developing countries. There is minimum diversity of products made from cowpea in Ghana. Production of cowpea-based milk would increase the utilizability of the legume. This study evaluates the processing and formulation variables, which affect the flowability, stability, and beany flavor of “Tech Process” cowpea milk produced from dehulled cowpea. Soaking conditions, temperature and time of heat processing, pH, solids concentration, crude protein content, and total sugars had the most pronounced effects on flowability and stability of the milk. Processing temperature of 75 and 90°C for 45 and 60 minutes were adequate to prevent milk separation, gelling, and to reduce the beany flavor to some extent. Soaking at ambient temperature before heat processing produced crude protein in the range of 6.71% to 7.10% but soaking using 0.25% (NaHCO3 + yeast) produced milk with protein in the range of 11% to 12.4% and total solid content of between 5.06% and 8.17% maximum, given total sugar of 0.37% compared to 9.51g/l00g of cowpea flour. For good milk maximum flowability was achieved at 35% to 37% Filtration Efficiency (FE), with a viscosity of 1.5 x 100 cP. At this FE milk stabilized at 0.17 separation unit/minute.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry, College of Science in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree, 2004