Assessing the Efficiency of the Akosombo Wastewater Stabilization Pond

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The efficiency of the Akosombo wastewater stabilization pond in Ghana was assessed over a three month period. Bimonthly samples were collected from four points (raw sewage, facultative pond, maturation and final effluent) and the pH, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, total suspended solids, total coliform and faecal coliform were determined using standard methods. The study revealed that the ponds achieved mean overall TSS, BOD and COD removals of about 75.2%, 78.9%, and 64.2%, respectively. The mean overall removal efficiency of ammonia- nitrogen, nitrate and phosphorus were 95.5% 64.9% and 25.4% respectively. Total and faecal coliforms removal was as high as 100%. Most of the ammonia (80.1%), total coliform (96.9%) and faecal coliform (99.0%) present in the raw sewage were removed in the primary facultative pond whereas biodegradables in the raw sewage were reduced in the maturation pond attaining efficiency of BOD (70.3%) and COD (42.8%) respectively. An average overall effective reduction was 86.5% for the stabilization pond. The levels of compliance of effluents with the physicochemical and microbial parameters were all below the EPA permissible levels except faecal coliforms.
A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science Degree In Environmental Science.