Assessment of groundwater potential in the Jasikan District of Volta Region, Ghana

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This study was carried out to assess the groundwater potential in the Jasikan District of the Volta Region. In Ghana, efforts are being made by both government and non-governmental agencies to provide potable water to rural communities in view of alleviating poverty and improving the socio-economic status of the people. As a result many boreholes have been drilled and more are planned to be drilled. However, there has not been any meaningful assessment of the potential of the groundwater to sustain the present and the planned boreholes. However, this is necessary for sustainable groundwater management in the area. Field investigations included measuring of Static Water Level (SWL), Dynamic Water Level (DWL) of pumping well and pumping tests. Methodology adopted included analyses of geological logs, pumping test analyses in determining transmissivity and specific capacity of productive wells in some selected communities and water quality analyses. Hydrogeological investigations revealed that the Jasikan District is underlain by the Buem formation (Sedimentary and Volcanic) which has undergone some modifications through geologic time resulting in the development of primary and secondary openings, which are formed by fracturing and weathering. Three water bearing zones exist in the study area; Upper zone (10-15m), Middle zone (15-25m), and the Lower zone (25-50m). All the volcanics have their water zones in both the middle and the lower zones while the sedimentary have theirs in the upper and middle zones. Yield analyses shown the sedimentary formation to have yields ranging between 6.9-147.8 m3/day and the volcanics between 6.9-486.08 m3/day. Mean yield of successful wells in the sedimentary is 35.14 m3/day and 115.27 m3/day in the volcanics. Transmissivity values are high in the volcanics as compared to the sedimentary. About 99% of the 34 boreholes pumps tested have more than 80% of recovery after 3 hours. The volcanics have about 53% of the percentage recovery while 47% goes to the sedimentary formation. The study carried out revealed that success rate of drilling boreholes in the District is about 90%. About 79% of well yields in the study area are between 8.28 m3/day - 138 m3/day and only about 3% of wells have yields less than 8.28 m3/day. Water quality analyses revealed that groundwater quality is generally good and suitable for drinking. In recommendation, more boreholes could be drilled to boost future water supply in the area. Higher yielding boreholes in some selected communities could be mechanized and supply to people’s homes as piped-borne water.
A thesis submitted to the College of Engineering in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation, 2004