Haemato-biochemical profile of diabetes mellitus patients in the Dunkwa Metropolis

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May, 2016
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Background: Anaemia is a known factor of complication in diabetes. Diabetic patients, compared to non-diabetics have been shown to be susceptible to a severe form of anaemia as Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) decreases. In spite of these, anaemia is unrecognized and often untreated in Diabetic patients in Ghana. Prevalence of anaemia; the haematobiochemical profile of diabetics and the association between anthropometric and renal function of diabetics under clinical management were studied at the Dunkwa Municipal Hospital, Dunkwa-On-Offin, Upper Denkyira East, Central Region, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional base line study for diabetics was conducted from January 2015 to March 2015 on diabetes mellitus (DM) patients attending the Dunkwa Municipal Hospital. A systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit the 103 participants who had an age range between 20 and 80 years. Out of 6ml of venous blood collected from the participants; 4ml was dispensed into yellow capped gel separator test tubes for onward separation into Eppendoff tube for the biochemical assays and 2ml was dispensed into EDTA anticoagulant test tubes for haematological assays. The data were double entered and analysis performed using Microsoft excel and Graph Pad Prism version 5.0 with statistical significance set at p<0.05. Tests of normality for all groups were done using the D`Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test. Additionally all graphs shown in this thesis were drawn using this software. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of two groups while the Kruskal Wallis test was used when comparing more than two groups. Test correlations were performed using the Spearman correlation test. v Results: A total of 103 DM patients were recruited for the study with 73(70.9%) being anaemic. 5.5% had renal insufficiency (<60 GFR ml/min/1.73m2) while 94.5% had GFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2 using the CKD-EPI criteria. Using the MDRD criteria, 4.1% of the patients had renal insufficiency (<60 GFR ml/min/1.73m2) while 95.9% had GFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2. There was a significant correlation between serum ferritin and anaemia and serum iron and anaemia (r=0.565; p<0.0001) and (r=0.333; p=0.0038) respectively. Conclusion: Anaemia is a common complication of diabetes in the Dunkwa metropolis of the Central Region of Ghana, and it occurs early even in the absence of renal impairment which therefore necessitates early screening for anaemia and further studies to elucidate the possible aetiology.
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Chemical Pathology in the Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology, Kumasi