Integration of Geoscience data in groundwater exploration: a case study in the Manya Krobo and Asuogyaman Districts, Eastern Region, Ghana

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Groundwater is most economic source of water supply for rural folks in view of the dispersed nature of these settlements. However, one major drawback is the low success rate of well drilling in some geological fonnations in the country. The research therefore integrated geoscience data for groundwater exploration on Manya Krobo and Asuogyaman districts in the Eastern Region, with the view of improving site selection in the area. The area is underlain by the Voltaian, Buem, Togo and Dahomeyan formations. The study considered delineating favourable grounds for groundwater exploration and determined if lineaments and drainage characteristics (net work) of the area have any relationship with aquifer. The data integrated included geological, aerial photograph, geophysical, topographic sheets and borehole data. These were then processed to generate various geographic themes which were integrated and studied at different stages in a Geographic Information System environment. Two main groups of lineaments were observed, a NE-SW/NNE-.SSW and a NWSE/NNW-SSE trending lineaments. Successful boreholes were associated with some lineaments in the area. Generally the occurrence and distribution of lineaments is fairly dense and the drainage system structurally controlled, except in the Dahomeyan where the occurrence of lineaments is very rare, and the drainage network is dendritic. Successful boreholes are related to the geology of the area. Generally the Togo-Buem produce good yields with the Voltaian producing fairly good yields. The Dahomeyan show few successful boreholes. The anomalous geophysical points determined from georesistivity surveys generally correlate with delineated lineaments from topographic and aerial photographs. The valleys of streams in the Voltaian, Togo and Buem show good correlation with sites associated with aquifer. It was thus concluded that the valleys could serve as favourable sites for groundwater exploration. As lineaments showed correlation with successful borehole sites the lineaments theme themselves indicate favourable sites for groundwater exploration.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science in Materials Engineering, 2004