Bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi.

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This study was undertaken from January 2008- June 2008 to investigate the bacterial causes of respiratory tract infection among some selected patients infected with HIV at KATH, Kumasi. Sputum specimen from 200 HIV patients with complaints suggestive of respiratory tract infection and 200 non HIV patients were cultured. The prevalence of bacterial species responsible for the respiratory tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients was 23.5%. In the HIV seronegative patients used as controls, the prevalence was 22.5 %. In the HIV seropositive patients, 4 (22%) different Gram negative bacteria and 1(1.5%) Gram positive bacterium was isolated. Also, of the HIV seropositive patients that had isolates in their sputum, 15.9% had dual infections. Susceptibility patterns revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (95.8%), gentamicin (95.8%), cefotaxime (83.3%), amikacin (79.1%), and cefuroxime (70.8%). Also, Escherichia coli were susceptible to amikacin (91.7%), cefotaxime (91.7%), gentamicin (75%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), and cefuroxime (58.3%). The susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gentamicin was 83.3% and to ciprofloxacin was 66.7%. All the Proteus mirabilis isolated were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime. Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and erythromycin. This study demonstrated that, bacteria responsible for respiratory tract infections at KATH, Kumasi in both HIV seropositive and seronegative patients were similar. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae which are often reported as the major causes of respiratory tract infections were not isolated.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Clinical Microbiology School of Medical Sciences School of Graduate Studies Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi, Ghana, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of Science degree (M.Sc.) in Clinical Microbiology on May.