Baseline Study into Groundwater Resources in the River Tain Sub-Basin of the Black Volta

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Groundwater is one of the most widely distributed and most important water resources on earth. It is safe for human consumption because it is free from pollution related to direct human activities. As interest in groundwater development intensifies, stakeholders are now more interested in the provision of baseline information for groundwater resources in the various basins to reduce the cost of exploration. The methodology involved the collection and analysis of existing borehole data. The results indicate that groundwater occurrence in the sub-basin depends on secondary porosity and is obtained in either weathered or fractured aquifer. The depth of boreholes in the sub-basin ranges between 30 and 75 m with a mean value of 49.2 m whilst borehole yield falls between 7 and 113 l/min with a mean value of 16.9 l/min. The overall success rate of borehole in the sub-basin is 74.7 %, however, most of the boreholes are low yielding. The mean transmissivity values are 10.63 m2/day for Birimian Sedimentary, 10.44 m2/day for Birimian Volcanic, 7.29 m2/day for Tarkwaian and 20.15 m2/day for Upper Voltaian. Groundwater accessibility in the sub-basin is not total. 60 % of the communities have less than the required number of boreholes based on the WHO threshold of 300 persons per a borehole leading to perennial water problems in these communities. The 40 % of the communities that have the required number of boreholes based on the WHO standard still face water crises due to low aquifer yield. Groundwater quality in the sub-basin is considered safe for drinking since the information gathered on 59 boreholes all have parameters falling within WHO water quality standard.
A thesis submitted to The Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Science in Water Resources Engineering and Management.2013