Waste management facilities in Kumasi: a case study of the Dompoase landfill and septage treatment facility.

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Effluent from Waste Stabilisation Ponds can pose a serious challenge to the stability of the ecosystem. Proper management of Landfills and Waste Stabilisation Ponds can lead to reduction of pollutants to permissible concentrations for the protection of the environment It is therefore necessary that effluent from the Stabilization Ponds and the streams receiving the treated effluent be fully characterized with thorough chemical analysis of possible waste constituents and some water quality parameters. The research was carried out at the Dompoase Landfill and Septage Treatment Facility. The objectives were to identify the characteristics of Septage effluent before treatment and after treatment, to find out the effectiveness of the Stabilisation Ponds in treating the effluent to meet the maximum permissible effluent limits by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to determine significant changes between the Upstream and Downstream of Oda which receives the treated effluent. Septage effluent was sampled before treatment and after treatment from the Anaerobic, Facultative and Maturation ponds. These were characterised and the results of the final effluent compared with the EPA maximum permissible effluent standards. The following results were obtained after six months of monitoring: Ammonia (74.5 mg/1), Phosphorous(l 1.7 mg/1), Temperature (40°C), Suspended Solids (191 mg/1), Nitrate (0.4 mg/1), pH (8.6), BOD (52.6 mg/1), COD (171.4 mg/1), Feacal Coliforms (1,758,333.33 counts per 100 mg). With the exception of Temperature and COD, all the parameters failed to meet the maximum permissible EPA standards. The receiving stream (Oda) was also sampled upstream and downstream to find out if there were significant changes in water quality after discharge of treated effluent from the ponds. Characterisation showed pollution downstream. With the exception of Temperature and Nitrate, all the changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). It is recommended that the quality of effluent from the Waste Stabilisation pond be further improved to prevent pollution of the Oda stream which serves as drinking water and for irrigating vegetables by Communities downstream. 
A thesis submitted to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology in partial fulfilment for requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science (MSc) in Environmental Science, 2008