The Risk Factors of Stroke and the Contribution of Metabolic Syndrome

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Although stroke cause substantial morbidity and mortality, it is unclear how individuals are affected, or a group of risk factors contribute to stroke outcomes especially in developing countries. This study evaluated the risk factors of stroke and the contribution of metabolic syndrome the condition. This was a cross-sectional study of stroke patients from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, compared to a control of healthy subjects. Adult enrolees who were eligible for inclusion were persons who have had stroke within twenty-four hours of onset without any medication. Questionnaires were used to gather information on medical history, demographic features and lifestyle. The lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure were measured, likewise the determination of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and WHO guidelines were used to determine which of the patients had metabolic syndrome. Out of 224 stroke patients, of mean age 65.64(8.75) SD years, used for the study, 56.7% of the patients had hyperglycaemia, whereas 47.2% were known diabetics. Hypertriglyceridaemiawas found in 55.8%, followed by 30.8% of the patients who had a reduced HDL-C and 17.95% of them with increased LDL-C. About 20% of the patients had raised AST, 7.1% raised ALT and 14.7% raised GGT above the normal levels. As high as 63% of stroke patients had high blood pressure. Based on the NCEP criteria, 46.88% of the stroke patients were classified to have metabolic syndrome, while the WHO criteria gave 10.27% of the stroke patients to have metabolic syndrome. None of the 100 healthy controls had the metabolic syndrome. There were a high prevalence of both hypertension and hyperglycaemia among the stroke patients. Stroke patients have all the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, and 46.88% of the patients had the metabolic syndrome, by NCEP guidelines, while none of the control group of healthy subjects had the syndrome. Based on this study, it is important to stress the need for educating the stroke patients and/or their caregivers, on the aetiology of stroke and the treatment options. The general population should also be educated on primary preventive measures for all age groups and both genders.
Thesis presented to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology in Partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Philosophy Degree in Biochemistry.