Insecticide susceptibility, characterization of breeding sites and community perceptions on malaria vector control interventions on KNUST Campus

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This study was carried out to find out the susceptibility status of Anopheles sp to the various chemical interventions used by inhabitants of KNUST campus and environs for mosquito control. To determine the association between breeding sites and susceptibility status obtained and also find out their knowledge and perception on ITN use. Seven Anopheles larval breeding sites were identified from larval surveys. Anopheles larvae were reared to adulthood and tested for (0.05%) deltamethrin, (0.1%) fenitrothion, (4%) DDT and (1%) bendiocarb to determine levels of resistance using the WHO tube assay method. Questionnaires were administered to determine the chemical control methods used by inhabitants within and in the immediate surroundings of the campus, and also their knowledge and perception on ITN use. A total of 2,510 adult female mosquitoes morphologically identified as Anopheles gambiae s.l. (98.8%) and Anopheles funestus (1.2%). These were exposed and were found to be highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides tested with mortalities of 15-54% for deltamethrin, 10-50% for bendiocarb, 7.5-38.75% for DDT and 5-42.5% for fenitrothion. Overall knockdown was 21-60% for deltamethrin, 11.25-36.25% for fenitrothion, 12.5-26.25% for DDT and10-55% for bendiocarb across all breeding sites. There was no association between susceptibility status and physical parameters of breeding sites. Inhabitants use ITNs, aerosol sprays, mosquito coils and mosquito repellents, impregnated curtains and screens on windows. Most of them had some knowledge about ITNs but a few did not use them due to reasons based on the nature of their rooms, allergies and socioeconomic reasons. The study shows the need for continous monitoring of susceptibility status of insecticides due to the high levels of resistance observed especially in cultivation areas, to slow its spread and restore vector susceptibility.
A thesis submitted for the award of a degree of Master of Science in Clinical Microbiology, 2014