Common Risk Factors that Contribute to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) in Patients of Manhyia District Hospital

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Metabolic syndrome is becoming a major problem in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to find out the prevalent factors contributing to metabolic syndrome in the Manhyia District Hospital in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. A sample size of 106 was used for the study. The type of patients used for the study were those who visit the out- patient department of the hospital and fall within the age group of 18 to 65 years. Recommended instruments were used for the measurement of both anthropometric and blood pressure levels. Questionnaires were used to assess physical activity levels and dietary intake while biochemical data of participants were assessed using their blood samples. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 was used for the analyses of the collected data. Descriptive statistics (mean scores, frequency distribution), cross tabulation with chi-square test and Multiple Logistic Regression Model were used for the analysis. Microsoft excel was used to generate tables and figures. The study revealed that there was low level of education (88.6%) among the participants. As high as 86% of participants who were found to have smoked in the past had elevated systolic BP. Also, 50% of the respondents who smoked in the past had high level of triglyceride > 1.69mmol/L. Passive smokers showed a positive association with FBG (p-value of 0.034). Also, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 58.5% and the main contributory risk factors of metabolic syndrome among the participants were high BP, high central obesity and high FBG. It is therefore recommended that there should be routine health screening by the Ghana Health Service in the various communities to reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Health education targeted at individuals should aim at encouraging a healthy lifestyle such as being engaged in physical activities, avoiding smoking and consuming low fat and healthy diet.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science Degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics