Screening for antifertility potential and safety evaluation of five locally used medicinal plants in albino mice (Mus musculus)

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October 2016
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility potential and toxicity of the crude ethanol extracts of Anthocleista nobilis (ARE), Macaranga heterophylla (MLE), Palisota hirsuta (PRE), Trichillia monadelpha (TBE) and Waltheria indica (WLE). Four hundred and twenty (420) albino mice were used for the study. Acute toxicity test was carried out using the Acute Toxic Class method (OECD, 2001). The LD50 of each plant extract was determined to be above 5000 mg/kg. In a preliminary fertility test, treatment of mice with ARE, MLE, PRE, TBE and WLE did not significantly alter their reproductive indices. Nevertheless, mice treated with ARE showed complete foetal resorption. Administration of TBE caused foetal resorption and abortion in treated mice. Hence ARE and TBE were selected for further testing. Repeated exposure of mice to ARE and TBE did not produce treatment related changes or toxicity. Anthocleista nobilis had no significant effect on the oestrous cycle and other reproductive parameters of treated mice. Trichilia monadelpha significantly altered phases of the oestrous cycle and exhibited antiimplatation and abortifacient effect. In vitro studies revealed that TBE possesses antispasmodic effect. It significantly inhibited the contractile response elicited by acetylcholine. The effect of Trichilia monadelpha on the uterus may be mediated by muscarinic receptors. The crude ethanol extracts of ARE, MLE, PRE and WLE did not show antifertility effects in mice at the doses tested.
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy,