Investigating the Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity on Cardiometabolic Diseases among Adults in Kumasi, Ghana

Thumbnail Image
JUNE, 2019
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Cardiometabolic disease prevalence has been on the rise not only in the developed countries but also in the emerging economies of developing nations. Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity contribute to the increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic conditions, including obesity, and diabetes with perception of body image being suggested to be a predictor of overweight/obesity development. This study assessed the relationship between nutrition and physical activity level on cardiometabolic traits among 302 healthy Asante adults in Kumasi. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban Oforikrom Municipality. Trained field workers administered questionnaires. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected and venous blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. A 3-day repeated 24-hour dietary recall was used to assess dietary intakes. Physical activity was assessed with global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). Data was entered into Microsoft excel and analysed with SPSS version 25. There were 126 males (41.7%) and 176 females (58.3%) in the study with mean age of 38.17±9.6 years. About 2 in 5 participants were centrally obese while hyperglycaemia prevalence was low (FBG ≥ 7 mmol/l = 1.3%). Metabolic syndrome and high risk of coronary heart disease (coronary risk) were present in 5.3% and 36.1% of study population, respectively. High coronary risk was strongly associated with LDL (r= 0.921, p-value < 0.001), HDL (r = -0.758, p-value < 0.001), and TC (r= 0.892, p-value < 0.001). Binary logistic regression showed that high TG and high LDL had significant effects on increased coronary risk (OR=14.2, 95% CI= 1.3-153.5, p-value= 0.029 and OR= 121.4, 95% CI= 15.4-958.3, p-value< 0.001, respectively). Based on WHO’s physical activity recommendation of 600 MET- minutes/ week, 68.5% of participants were physically active. Mean energy intake for both males and females was below their RDA. Intake of antioxidant micronutrients (zinc, vitamin C and E) were generally low. Fewer participants (44%) were able to correctly perceive their body image. Among obese people, 26% thought they were normal weight and this could account for why 2 in 5 overweight/obese persons did not desire to lose weight. The difference in prevalence of both metabolic syndrome and high coronary risk between participants who correctly perceived their body image and those who did not was not statistically significant. In conclusion, cardiometabolic disease and other CVD risk factors were high among apparently healthy adults in Oforikrom Municipality.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in partial fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Master of Philosophy Degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics.