Heavy metal contamination assessment of groundwater quality: a case study of Oti landfill site, Kumasi

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Springer International Publishing
Environmentally friendly municipal solid waste management is the biggest problem facing several developing countries, including Ghana. Heavy metals pollution generated by landfill leachate has become increasingly concerned due to its potential impact on human health. This study assessed the pollution level and sources of heavy metal levels in groundwater, as well as evaluated the human health risk effect. The sampling technique and sample treatment were done based on the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The results suggested that the mean concentration of Pb, Fe, Cd, and Cr was above the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization for drinking water except for Zn and Cu. The heavy pollution index indicates contamination, while hazard index values at sites BH1 and W4 were greater than one, suggesting adverse health effects. However, the heavy metal pollution index values were less than the critical limit of 100 for drinking water. Multivariate analysis predicted that lithogenic and anthropogenic factors were the possible sources of water pollution of heavy metal in the Oti community. Thus, multivariate statistical techniques could be a beneficial tool for the evaluation of possible sources of heavy metal contamination. The high levels of heavy metals found in the Oti community suggested a considerable pollution of water by leachate percolation from the landfill site. The findings of the study, which can be used in areas under similar environmental conditions, can offer a valuable benchmark for the design of suitable approaches to manage groundwater resources by both local and national policymakers
An article published by Springer International Publishing and also available at https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0915-y
Hazard index, Heavy metals, Pollution index, Leachate, Groundwater
Applied Water Science (2019) 9:33 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0915-y