Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its associated lipid and cardiac enzyme changes among diabetes mellitus patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana.

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Cross-sectional studies have reported that the risk of thyroid dysfunction and its associated cardiac risk indicators such as hypertension and hyperlipidaemia in diabetes mellitus patients are two (2) to three (3) folds higher than in the general population. Thyroid dysfunction among diabetic patients results in poor blood glucose management and worsens plasma glucose control. Thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients also ca^^ abnormal changes in lipid and cardiac profiles. Research data of thyroid profile of diabetic patients in Ghana is not available and this therefore necessitated this pioneering study of Prevalence of Thyroid dysfunction and its associated lipid and cardiac enzyme changes at the Diabetic Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Two hundred and sixty-two (262) patients with mean age 51.5 (±15) years were randomly selected with their informed consent and their thyroid profile (TSH, TT4, TT3) was measured with an automated enzyme immunoassay analyzer. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting lipid profiles and cardiac enzyme profiles were determined on an ATAC 8000 random chemistry analyzer. Their age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were also recorded. All the results were analysed using ST ATA 8 statistical software. Twelve patients (4.5%) had thyroid dysfunction. Eight patients (3.0%) were hyperthyroid and four patients (1.5%) were hypothyroid, sixty nine (26.4%) showed sub-clinical hypothyroidism and one hundred and eighty one (69.1%) were euthyroid. The mean total cholesterol (205±10 mg/dl) and LDL -cholesterol (189±15 mg/dl) were greater for the hypothyroids than the hyperthyroids, sub- clinical hypothyroids and the euthyroids. The mean creatine kinase (208±20u/l) and lactate dehydrogenase (305±21u/L) of the hypothyroids were significantly greater than that of the hypothyroids, sub- clinical hypothyroids and euthyroids. The high prevalence rate of thyroid dysfunction (4.5%) among the studied diabetic group suggests that there should be routine screening for thyroid status for diabetic patients who have poor plasma glucose control, hyperlipidaemia, and heart related diseases.
A thesis submitted to the College of Health Sciences, department of Molecular Medicine, 2008