In-Vitro effect of non-ionising radiation from cellular phone on human sperm quality in men

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AUGUST, 2016
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This systematic randomized case-control study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of exposure of non-ionizing cellular phone radiation on markers of semen quality, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA damages in-vitro, after ejaculation. A total of seventy-three (73) patients attending a fertility center in Sakumono, Tema metropolis were recruited for this study. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographics and the anthropometric measurements were also assessed. About 2-3mls of freshly ejaculated semen neatly collected by masturbation with consent and analyzed initially by the WHO standard semen analysis. Semen was exposed to non-ionizing cellular phone radiation for three hours and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were determined using SOD assay kit and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was calculated after the DFI test. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.00. The mean age of the participants in this study was 38.81 ± 5.87years. A higher proportion (28.8%) of them was between the ages of 36-40years. The mean height, weight BMI and number of days for abstinence were 1.72m ± 0.048, 76.70kg ±25.91, 25.91kg/m2± 2.42 and 3.06 days±0.24. DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was significant and linearly positive associated with immotility (R2 = 0.483; p < 0.0001) and negatively associated with progressive motility (%) (R2 = 0.299; p <0.0001), total motility (%) (R2 0.0.483; p <0.0001) and SOD (U/ml) (R2 = 0.773; p <0.0001). There was a significant positive linear relationship between SOD and progressive motility (R2 = 0.204; p<0.0001), non-progressive motility (R2 = 0.296; p<0.0001), vitality (R2 = 0.725; p <0.0001), total motility R2 = 0.0.497, p <0.0001). Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) was negatively associated with Immotility (R2 = 0.497; p<0.0001) exposed to non-ionizing cellular phone radiation. Mean percentage (%) of Superoxide dismutase concentration was significantly lower in order before exposure > after 370C exposure > after 370C and RF-EMW exposure (P<.0001). Higher proportional effect of sperm progressive motility (40.5%), non-progressive motility (5.54%), vitality (16.29%), SOD activity (22.2%), total motility (3.82%), immotility (3.82%) and DNA fragmentation index (11.23%) was observed after the exposure to RF-EMW from a mobile phone compare to control and before exposure to non-ionizing cellular phone radiation. This study demonstrated that RF-EMW causes oxidative stress in semen and resulted into a decline in spermatozoa total motility, (progressive and non-progressive motility), viability and SOD and corresponding increase immotility and DFI.
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in the Department of Molecular Medicine School of Medical Sciences College of Health.