Self-management of diabetes among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetes clinics in selected hospitals in the Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region, Ghana.

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Background: The rising number of persons living with diabetes in Ghana has posed a huge economic burden to the patients and their families, healthcare systems and the national economy. This study aimed at assessing self-management among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetes clinics in public hospitals in the Tamale Metropolis. Methods: The study was conducted at three government hospitals in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. A descriptive cross sectional design was used and convenience sampling technique was employed to recruit respondents for a period of four months. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 330 patients whose data was included in the analysis, the majority (73%) had good knowledge and 27% had poor knowledge of diabetes. Educational level, monthly income, occupation, place of residence and duration of diabetes were the factors significantly associated with knowledge of diabetes. The least performed self-management activity was self-monitoring of blood glucose (0.53 ± 1.27 days per week), followed by diet (3.95 ± 1.04 days per week). The highest performed activity was foot care (4.35 ± 1.31 days per week). Educational level and gender were significantly associated with self-management practices. More than half of the patients (57.9%) had poor glycaemic control. Women were less likely to have poor glycaemic control than men [COR=0.36 (95%CI: 0.22-0.58), p<0.001]. Rural residence [COR=1.60 (95%CI: 1.04-2.78), p=0.035] and overweight [AOR=3.05 (95%CI: 1.08-8.58), p=0.034] were associated with higher odds of uncontrolled diabetes. Conclusion: The patients’ adherence to self-management practices and level of glycaemic control were suboptimal. It is recommended that health care professionals providing education and counselling strengthen specific areas of knowledge including knowledge on medication, self-monitoring, and knowledge on complication in their future education sessions.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing.
Diabetes, Mellitus Patients, Hospitals, Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region