Assessment of the quality, safety and effectiveness of Nibima And Camber used in the management of Malaria and Hypertension respectively at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM)

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Medicinal plants have been used all over the world since time immemorial, and the use of plant medicines is being seriously recommended to be incorporated into the healthcare delivery systems especially that of developing countries like Ghana. However the questions related to quality, safety and effectiveness of these herbal medicines have been the bone of contention between the orthodox and the traditional medical practitioners. Malaria and Hypertension continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality in most tropical and subtropical countries. A rapid spread of malarial disease globally and high rate of hypertension among young adults have led to an urgent need for antimalarials and antihypertensives from medicinal plants. The objectives of this thesis are to ascertain the quality, safety and effectiveness of Nibima and Camber, two herbal preparations used in the management of malaria and hypertension respectively, at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akuapem. Out of the thirty-two patients treated for malaria, using Nibima in dose of 1 OOmls thrice daily for six days, 64.9% had total cure; 29.7% had partial cure and 5.4% showed no response. Parasitaemia clearance was 62.5% within the first three days. Out of the thirty-seven patients studied for hypertension, using Camber in a dose of 6Omls thrice daily for six weeks, 56.3% had their blood pressure well controlled; 25% partially controlled and 18.7% poorly controlled. Secondary metabolites of alkaloids and tannins present in Nibima and Camber could account for the therapeutic effects seen. Both drugs are safe to use in their present dosages. However, safety profile for Camber needs to be further investigated because this study showed that there is propensity for renal damage after prolonged usage.
A thesis submitted to the College of Health Sciences in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science, 2005