The chemistry of three indigenous seeds, and the extraction, nutritional and industrial potentials of their oils

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This thesis describes the chemistry of the seeds of Carapa procera (Monkey cola), Pentadesma butvracea (Tallow tree) and Telfaira occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), the extraction, nutritional and industrial potentials of their seed oils. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 46.45% to 66.19% and protein, from 6.34% to 22.54%. Ash values ranged from 2.78% to 3.93% whilst seeds of P butyracea contained the highest fibre and carbohydrate values of 13.73% and 22.44% respectively. Chemical composition of defatted seeds showed protein values to be from 8.01% to 54.68%. Fibre contents ranged from 6.40% 15.22%. Ash and carbohydrate values ranged from 3.53% to 10.91% and from 24.69% to 64.56% respectively. Amino acid composition analysis revealed that the seeds were low in sulphur containing amino acids. The predominant fatty acids in all the seed oils were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. The iodine and saponification values ranges were 51.59% to 99.45% and 194.42% to 214.37% respectively. All the oils had low unsaponifiable matter and acid values. Optimization of aqueous extraction parameters showed that more than 50% of the oils were extractable. Both C. procera and. P. butvracea oils could be optimally extracted for 20 mins. using a meal : water ratio of 1:7 when the seeds were roasted at 100°C, for 30mm and at 120°C for 45mins respectively. With T..; occidentalis however, seed roasting at 100°C for 30mins, using a meal: water ratio of 1:6 and an extraction time of 30 mins. were required to achieve optimum extraction. Nutritionally, only P. byraoea oil was comparable to palm oil, however all the oils had a good potential for soap making.
A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy in Biochemistry, 1993