Ground water quality analysis in the Amansie West District of Ashanti Region

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The laboratory analyses of the water samples taken from the various communities (Manso Akropong, Ahwerewa, Manso Abore, Antoakrom, Apenimadi, Adwumam, Manso Nkwanta, Mpatuam, Tontokrom, Manso Nkran, Agroyesum, Adubea, Datano, and Pakyi No.2) of Amansie West District (Study Area) indicate that their drinking water sources contain lead (Pb) above the permissible level of l0μg/l proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Ghana. Pakyi No.2 has unusually low pH and nitrate levels which are above the EPA permissible levels of (6-9) and 2.0μg/l respectively. Low p11 has adverse effects on taste, odour, and appearance of drinking water and may also enhance the corrosion of water mains and metal containers. With the exception of Apenimadi, the remaining communities have sulphate levels above the EPA permissible level of 1.0μg/l. Manso Abore, Antoakrom, Apenimadi, Tontokrom, Agroyesum, Adubea, Datano, and Pakyi No.2 have Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane-HCH) pesticide residue levels in μg/l of 36.12, 37.92, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 40.19,38.70 and 5.0 respectively. These are extremely higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 2.0igIl. Adubea recorded 25.56μg/l for 2, 4, 5 Trichlorobenzene (TCB) above the WHO guideline value of 20μg/l. All the afore-mentioned communities with pesticide residues have levels of DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD) above the WHO guideline value of 2.0μg/l. Thus the water quality of boreholes has been influenced by: (A) The geology of the area by virtue of the possibility of mineralisation of lead and the generation of sulphuric acid from sources such as pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite associatted with the geology of the study area. (B) Farming activity through the use of pesticides. Inspite of the generally poor sanitary conditions of the district, its ground water quality has not been affected. This is because of the absence of fecal coliforms (according to results of bacteriological analyses) often associated with poor sanitary conditions.
A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Master of Science degree in Environmental Resources Management, 2000