Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress in Ghanaians Presenting with Prostate Cancer

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The latest estimates of global cancer incidence show that prostate cancer has become the second most common cancer among men in the world. A number of reports have linked both oxidative stress and certain features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) to prostate cancer. Although oxidative stress and MetS have been found to be more prevalent among the Ghanaian population no data exist on its prevalence in Ghanaian prostate cancer patients. This study seeks to investigate metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in Ghanaians presenting with prostate cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the out-patient department of the department of surgery, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, between the period of November, 2010 and April, 2012. In all, one hundred and twenty four (124) adult males (87 case subjects and 37control subjects) aged at least forty two years were enrolled. Prevalence of MetS was diagnosed using The World Health Organization (WHO), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria for defining MetS was employed. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS in the PCa population was 9.2%, 18.4% and 12.6% using NCEP-ATP III, IDF and WHO criteria respectively. Using all the three criteria, the MetS prevalence was highest among the highly aggressive PCa group compared to the other PCa groups and control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker, and uric acid were significantly raised whereas the measured antioxidant (vitamin C) was significantly reduced among the PCa patients compared to the controls. The indication is that oxidative stress with reduced antioxidant levels is common in PCa patients. Oxidative stress and MetS may have a significant role in prostate cancer. Based on the findings, it may seem reasonable to propose that therapeutic regimens aimed at beefing up the antioxidant defences could offer some degree of protection for PCa patients against oxidative stress.
A thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Master of Philosophy.