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- ItemSoil carbon stock and nutrient characteristics of Senna siamea grove in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana(De Gruyter, 2020-06) Logah, Vincent; Tetteh, Erasmus Narteh; Adegah, Ebenezer Yao; Mawunyefia, JusticeWe report soil carbon stock (SCS) and nutrient characteristics of a pure stand of Senna siamea grove in comparison with adjacent cropland using t-test. This study was conducted in 2018 at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. Soil sampling up to 50 cm depth was carried out from five subplots in each ecosystem. The SCS of the grove at 0–15 cm depth was over 100% greater (30.78 Mg/ha) than that of the cropland (15.16 Mg/ha). Soil pH and total N content of the grove were 5.75 ± 1.22 and 0.10 ± 0.03% in the topsoil (0–15 cm) and 5.52 ± 0.80, 0.06 ± 0.01% and 5.03 ± 1.22, 0.04 ± 0.01% in the 15–30 and 30–50 cm depths, respectively. Although these values were greater in the grove than the cropland, the available phosphorus content was 3–4 fold greater in the latter soil. The two ecosystems affected soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents significantly (p < 0.05) only in the topsoil, but had a significant influence on soil available phosphorus in both the topsoil and the subsoil. Sand content of the grove seemed to explain greater variability in its SCS (R2 = 0.81) than clay content. The greater SCS of the Senna grove demonstrates its role in soil carbon storage in tropical climate in the era of climate change.
- ItemLegume-rhizobium specificity effect on nodulation, biomass production and partitioning of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)(Nature, 2021) Allito, B.B.,; Ewusi-Mensah, N.; Logah, V.Greenhouse and multi-location experiments were conducted for two consecutive years to investigate the effects of rhizobium on nodulation, biomass production and partitioning of faba bean. Split-plot in randomized complete block design was used for field experiments. Treatments consisted of six rhizobium strains and three faba bean varieties. Peat carrier-based inoculant of each strain was applied at the rate of 10 g kg−1 seed. Non-inoculated plants without N fertilizer and with N fertilizer served as –N and + N controls, respectively. Data on nodulation, shoot dry weight and root dry weight were collected and analyzed. Inoculation of rhizobium significantly increased nodulation of faba bean under greenhouse and field conditions. Location x strain x variety interaction had significant effects on nodulation, dry matter production and partitioning. Rhizobium inoculation increased nodulation, shoot and root dry weights of faba bean across locations. For example, inoculation with rhizobium strains NSFBR-15 and NSFBR-12 to variety Moti resulted in 206.9 and 99.3% shoot dry weight increase at Abala Gase and Hankomolicha, respectively and 133.3 and 70.7% root dry weight increase on the same variety at the same sites, respectively. Nodulation and biomass production depend on the compatibility between faba bean genotype and rhizobium strain and its interaction with soil bio-physical conditions.
- ItemBerekum Presbyterian Senior High School Vice-Chancellor's Speech(2010-11-06) Ohene Adu, Prof. D. A.
- ItemElevated adaptive immune responses are associated with latent infections of wuchereria bancrofti(PLOS, 2012-04) Arndts, Kathrin; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Klarmann, Ute; Mand, Sabine; Adjobimey, Tomabu; Debrah, Alexander Y.; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Epp, Christian; Taylor, Mark; Adjei, Ohene; Layland, Laura E.; Hoerauf, AchimIn order to guarantee the fulfillment of their complex lifecycle, adult filarial nematodes release millions of microfilariae (MF), which are taken up by mosquito vectors. The current strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem focuses upon interrupting this transmission through annual mass drug administration (MDA). It remains unclear however, how many rounds of MDA are required to achieve low enough levels of MF to cease transmission. Interestingly, with the development of further diagnostic tools a relatively neglected cohort of asymptomatic (non-lymphedema) amicrofilaremic (latent) individuals has become apparent. Indeed, epidemiological studies have suggested that there are equal numbers of patent (MF+) and latent individuals. Since the latter represent a roadblock for transmission, we studied differences in immune responses of infected asymptomatic male individuals (n = 159) presenting either patent (n = 92 MF+) or latent (n = 67 MF2) manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofti. These individuals were selected on the basis of MF, circulating filarial antigen in plasma and detectable worm nests. Immunological profiles of either Th1/Th17, Th2, regulatory or innate responses were determined after stimulation of freshly isolated PBMCs with either filarial-specific extract or bystander stimuli. In addition, levels of total and filarial-specific antibodies, both IgG subclasses and IgE, were ascertained from plasma. Results from these individuals were compared with those from 22 healthy volunteers from the same endemic area. Interestingly, we observed that in contrast to MF+ patients, latent infected individuals had lower numbers of worm nests and increased adaptive immune responses including antigen-specific IL-5. These data highlight the immunosuppressive status of MF+ individuals, regardless of age or clinical hydrocele and reveal immunological profiles associated with latency and immune-mediated suppression of parasite transmission.
- ItemDifferential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa The SIREN Study(Stroke, 2019) Akpalu, Albert; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Iheonye, Henry; Akinyemi, Rufus; Akpa, Onoja...et.al.Background and Purpose—The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods—SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results—Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49–71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19–28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42–3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29–2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11–4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53–3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48–3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07–2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89–4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33–3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%–99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%–98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions—Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.