Odour control of a Biological Wastewater Facility

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June, 2015
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Industrial wastewater effluents are a major health concern globally. Thus many industries are encouraged to treat their wastewater before discharge into receiving waters. The efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant in a beverage industr y in Kumasi, Ghana was studied to ascertain the cause of an odour that is produced from the treatment facility especially during plant shutdown and flavour change over and also to determine the quality of the effluent discharged into receiving waters. Measured parameters include pH, Total Suspended Solids, electrical conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, colour, turbidity, phosphorus, iron, lead, copper, zinc total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Enterococci and E. coli using standard protocols set by APHA. The physicochemical quality of the effluent wastewater was significantly better than the influent wastewater except for Phosphorus which was more in the effluent (2.35 mg/L) than the influent (1.40 mg/L). Dissolved oxygen was significantly higher in the effluent than the influent. Iron and Zinc concentrations were higher in the influent (11.31 mg/L and 0.32 mg/L respectively) than in the effluent (1.42 mg/L and 0.08 mg/L respectively). However, the opposite was recorded for Lead and Copper concentrations. Differences in microbial numbers between that in the influent and effluent were not statistically significant. The plant shut down phase recorded a higher concentration in all the physicochemical parameters analysed except for B.O.D. Higher concentrations of B.O.D, C.O.D and D.O above the WHO standard were recorded, accounting for the high odour emitted from the treatment plant. The high odour released from the treatment facility can be attributed to the high concentration of C.O.D and B.O.D and the low concentration of D.O resulting in anaerobic respiration with the resultant release of ammonia and other gases which accounts for the odour.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Materials Engineering of the College of Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science, in Environmental Resources Management