Assessment of liquid waste management in health care facilities in Kumasi

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MAY, 2016
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In developing countries, hospital liquid waste management is an issue of major concern. The main objective was to assess the hospital wastewater management practices in three Community-based Health Planning and Service (CHPS compounds), two (02) primary hospitals, and one (01) Specialist hospital in fertility within Kumasi Metropolis. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in the methodology for this study. Wastewater samples were collected from main effluent points (pipes, inspection chambers, manholes and drains) inside the health care facilities, in situ measurement and laboratory analysis were performed for the Physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. The study revealed that five (05) health care facilities discharge their wastewater (grey water) without any treatment directly into drains to be conveyed into the urban drainage system, and only one CHPS compound dispose of it wastewater (grey water) into a soakaway through inspection chambers. The wastewater discharged from the health facilities were estimated between 160 to 480 litres/day for the CHPS compounds and 5,600 to 15,840 litres/day for the hospitals. Findings indicated acceptable iron, chromium, zinc and manganese concentrations, however high COD and BOD values were observed ranging between 98 to 832 and 31.09 to 68.15 mg/l respectively. Nitrate concentration ranged from 2.9 to 424.95 mg/l and phosphorus values were between 1.7 and 4.49 mg/l and above EPA acceptable guideline values. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) presence and microbiological contents were found above Ghana EPA effluent guideline values. One out of six health care facilities had a high mercury concentration of 0.014 mg/l, lead concentration were found higher than EPA permissible levels, cadmium concentration for two CHPS compounds were above EPA acceptable levels (0.1 mg/l), thus the need of proper disposal and adequate treatment of hospital wastewater. 
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, College of engineering In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master Of Science Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation MAY, 2016