Response Of Bambara Groundnut Landraces To Heat And Drought Stress In The Guinea Savanna And Transition Zones Of Ghana

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Field experiments were conducted at the Irrigation Company of Upper Region (ICOUR) in Navrongo, Upper East region; and the Agricultural Research Station in Wenchi, Brong Ahafo region between February and June 2007 to evaluate the response of five Bambara groundnut landraces to heat and drought stress. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications for the heat experiment and three replications for the other two experiments was used. The treatments consisted of five bambara groundnut landraces: Black Eye, Nav Red, Nav 4, Burkina and Tom. Data collected included leaf number; days to 50% flowering; plant height; canopy width; leaf, stem and root dry weights, leaf area and pod and seed yields. The Burkina landrace produced the greatest total plant dry weight and seed yield in the heat experiment. In the drought experiment, the same landrace produced the greatest root dry weight and total plant dry weight but produced no pod. Additionally, the same landrace produced the greatest seed yield at the experiment at Wenchi. This result indicates that the Burkina landrace showed the maximum tolerance to drought and heat stress. The Tom landrace was the least tolerant and produced no pod in the heat and drought experiments. In the Wenchi experiment, where all the landraces produced seed, the lowest seed yield was recorded in the Tom landrace. Under the conditions of this study, Burkina landrace can be recommended to bambara farmers for cultivation.
This Thesis Is Submitted To The School Of Postgraduate Studies Of Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology, Kumasi In Partial Fulfilment For The Award Of Master Of Science (Agronomy) Degree Submitted By Matthew Kwadwo Opoku B.Sc. Agriculture (Hons.)