Evaluation of the quality of water from boreholes selected from the Ejisu-Juaben and Bosomtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma Districts of the Ashanti region of Ghana

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In this project, the quality of water from 21 boreholes from 13 communities in the Ejisu—Juaben (E-J) and I 7 boreholes from 11 communities in the Bosomtwi—Atwima— Kwanwoma Districts (BAK) of the Ashanti Region of Ghana has been determined within the period of November 2004 to June 2005. Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters, sampling temperature, pH, color. Conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness some selected anions (SO42- , Cl-, PO43- and NO2- ) and some heavy metals (Fe. Mn. Cu. Zn. Cd. Pb. KandNa). The UV-Visible Spectrophotomeler was used to determine SO42- by the barium precipitation method, PO43- by the ascorbic acid method. NO2- by sulphanilic acid method and humic substances by direct determination. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to determine Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb: tritrimetrv was employed to measure alkalinity, hardness and chloride content. Sodium and Potassium concentrations were determined with Flame Photometry. The results were compared to WHO standards and were observed that determinations were all within the limits with the exception of samples AC3, AC2 and AC I from Achiase and PS of Paakoso all in the E-J district gave very low pH values of 3.95, 4.25 426 and 4.63 respectively. There were some isolated cases of contamination by cadmium of 0.OO6mg/L at Bowohommoden and Brahabebome. Further contamination by Lead of 0.02mg/L in sample AD I from Adumasa and 0.02 l5mg/L from Bowohommoden (all from the E-J district) were also observed. High levels of color at 60 HU and 40 HU were observed for samples OD1 and 0D2 1mm Kokodee and ASS I from Asisiriwa all in the BAK district. In addition, high levels of turbidity of 7.48 for samples TA1 from Toamfom and 44.95 NTU for sample ASSI from Asisiriwa were observed. Samples ODI and 0D2 from Kokodee also gave high turbidities of 20.2 NTU and 12.68 NTU respectively. All these occurred in the BAK district. The results showed that water from the boreholes in the two districts had acceptable quality to allow its application in household activities.
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah university of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Environmental Chemistry), 2005