Analysis of the preparedness of Ghanaian formal and traditional industries to adopt hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and a model for implementing HACCP in traditional pito brewing

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A survey of some of the food industries in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions were carried out to establish the level of implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, obtain information of industries’ hazard awareness and to establish the barriers to HACCP as well draw a model for the pito processing industry. The instrument used was a well structured interview with a closed question format. Questionnaire data was also supported by field observation. The processing of pito was carefully monitored and the Critical Control Points identified. Six processing stages were identified in pito brewing as Critical Control Points. There were 30 completed and returned questionnaire and the overall survey response rate of 46.2%. Amongst the companies surveyed, 3 % were in the field of cocoa and food processing, 8% in the beverage industry and 84% belonged to other classes. 16.6% of the food industries implement some level of HACCP. Out of this, 3.3% of survey implements 25-45%, 50-60% and 90 -100% levels, whiles 6.7% of the survey implements levels of 70-80%. Factors influencing pito quality include choice of yeast, condition yeast, amount of yeast and distribution of yeast throughout fermentation. Sorghum used for processing pito is exposed to several hazards and six processing stages identified as Critical Control Points. The different food hazard that is associated with the activities of these food industries were biological, chemical, physical, pathological and others with percentages of 70, 63.3, 85.8, 33.3 and 3.3 respectively. The constraints and barriers of food industries in the implementation of HACCP include lack of commitment by management, lack of understanding and training, lack of resources and mistranslation of HACCP principles.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Science degree, 2001