Analyzing the effects of change orders on the delivery of electricity infrastructure projects in Ghana

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November 2019
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The causes of change orders and their effects on project cost and schedule are complex and influenced by numerous interrelated factors. The risk and uncertainties associated with project changes make predictions and planning for changes a difficult task. The objective of this research study was to identify major causes of changes, their effects on projects, and control procedures adopted in large infrastructure projects in ECG. An exploratory design was effectively utilized for this research. Primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires, data gathered were analyzed and findings discussed. A sample of 84 respondents were gathered from ECG project office. The result revealed that the most five common causes of change orders can be identified as: change of plans by owner, change of project scope by owner (additional-enhancement), problems on site, errors and omission in design (main element), poor design and poor working drawing details (secondary element). The five most common effects of change order are increasing the project’s cost, increasing the duration of individual activities, delaying in completion schedule, additional money for contractor, and delaying in payment. Finally, the six most common control measures are: checking and reviewing the contract documents, reviewing design before change approval, the change order must be negotiated by knowledgeable persons, the scope of change orders must be clearly made, appropriate approval in writing must be handed, and the good tools to control the occurrence of change including the areas of concern in monthly reports and meetings. It is recommended that owners make adequate financial planning during planning stage to avoid changing plans later or during construction.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Construction Technology and Management, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Awarded Degree of Master of Science in Project Management. .
Change Order, Electricity Infrastructure, Projects.