A manual on some three - dimensional graphic design works for Senior Secondary Schools

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Graphic design is but one or the Visual Arts being studied as a vocational discipline in our first and second cycle institutions. This subject basically employs the most effective ways or means by which a message or an idea could be comprehensively as well as positively conveyed to the general public 01’ targeted group. Texts, illustrations and symbols mostly feature in graphic design works. The frequency of these features depends much on the communication design one wishes to express his ideas or message through. For example, a notice is a poster designed with texts or words only, whiles the pictorial type has illustrations, drawings or photo graphs in addition to the texts to attract the public’s attention. A greater percentage of graphic design works are two-dimensional - i.e. they are seen on flat surfaces of varying materials. Examples are banners, stamps billboards, handouts, posters and etc. Few are the three dimensional ones with volume. They have height in addition to their length and breadth and can stand on their own without any supports. An Educational Reform Programme, introduced earlier and finally implemented nation-wide in 1978 by the erstwhile Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) government has the teaching and learning of practical skills at all institutional levels as one of its main objectives. The programme seeks to equip graduates of both junior and senior secondary schools with vocational skills like looking, serving visual arts and technical skills like woodwork and building. These were spelt out to enable the graduates to get self-employed or join middle level man-power supply system on completion of the basic or secondary educational systems. Prior to the introduction or the reform, several graduates came out of the educational system with much book-knowledge and very little practical skills, which saw the applying for non-existent while - color jobs. Many who got frustrated fled the country in search of any work they could be offered, no matter how demeaning it was in the face of non. Some got the job alright, but those who felt they were either being under-utilized or poorly paid for their services joined the wagon to look for better job opportunities or” greener pastures” as a commonly called in today’s parlance. This unfortunate situation culminated in an unprecedented brain-drain which has, and confines to deal a heavy blow to the economic emancipation of the nation. Government, both past and present had to grapple with this unfortunate situation with little success being chalked, because though the reform has good intentions, the practical acquisition of skills as its main objective receives less attention compared to the theory. For instance, Graphic Design as a subject of study has three papers taken at the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination Level. The first paper, which is the multiple choices, has 50 marks. The second is paper, which is written or theory paper has 150 marks, and the third paper, the practical project works question has 100 marks Looking at the marks distribution, one needs not be told of the real situation on the ground:- a clear defeat of the aims and objectives of the reform. A cursory look at the practical works reveals that what is being done in the senior secondary schools as far as graphic design is concerned is very little, especially the three dimensional ones, which open more opportunities or avenues for creativity. Reasons given for this abnormally cuts across inadequate financial support by head of institutions and parents , the high cost of conventional tools and equipment, lack of interest on the part of the students in practical works to inadequate knowledge on the part of the tutors.
A Research Project Report Presented to the School of Graduate Studies Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Philosophy Degree in Art Education, 2005