Enablers of lean construction concept to affordable housing schemes in Ghana

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November, 2016
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The effort to provide affordable housing, reduce construction waste and increase productivity has led to the adaptation of the concept of ‘Lean Construction’. Assessing and implementing the techniques of the lean philosophy has become key for organizations in the industry of construction in the quest for incessant improvements. The challenges faced in the implementation of the government of Ghana’s affordable housing scheme coupled with the challenges in embracing and implementing the Lean Construction Concept is the main problem for this study. Consequently, the study identifies and assesses the enablers of lean construction with respect to the execution of Affordable Housing Schemes in the Ghanaian setting. The research objectives are to assess the perception of stakeholders on the concept of Affordable Housing, identify the potential barriers to the application of the Lean Construction Concept in Ghana and to identify the Enablers or Drivers of Lean Construction Concept in Affordable Housing Schemes in Ghana. A quantitative approach of data analysis involving an exploratory method of investigation was utilized in this study. A comprehensive review of literature together with questionnaire survey was undertaken among professionals in the construction industry of Ghana. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software (SPSS v20.0) using factor analysis; Kaiser Meyer Olkin test, Bartlette’s test of Sphericity to test the reliability and adequacy of the sample of factors studied. The potential barriers to the application of lean construction were identified and were laid open to factor analysis, which yielded three (3) categories of critical barriers considered as management related, construction related as well as design related barriers. The enablers for implementing lean construction in Affordable Housing were classified into four (4) main headings, namely; Organizational Culture factors; Relational factors; Leadership and Management factors; as well as Resource, Skills and Expertise factors. In addition, the benefits of implementation of lean construction identified in literature were grouped into environmental, social and economic benefits. The research further revealed that the most significant barrier is ‘Lack of Awareness and training’, and the most significant enablers are ‘Business Plan and Vision, Management Commitment and Support’. Furthermore, the analysis derived from the questionnaire survey concluded that there are still greater number of construction stakeholders who are not aware of the Lean Construction philosophy. In addition, professionals in the built environment per the survey generally agree that Lean Construction would be beneficial to the Affordable Housing Scheme in Ghana. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by identifying success factors for lean construction concept implementation in the Affordable Housing Scheme in Ghana.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Building Technology, College of Art and Built Environment in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.
Lean Construction, Affordable Housing, Barriers, Enablers, Drivers