Using mackerel (Scomberomorus tritor) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in frankfurter-type sausages

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November, 2015
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In this study essential amino acids, minerals, proximate composition, pH, water holding capacity, and microbiological safety of meats (Mackerel, Catfish and Pork) and their corresponding sausages were determined. Amino acids were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, NH4+ and Na+ were determined by Cadmium.mtw and ASUP5–100 marvin.mtw was used for determining the anions (Fl-, Cl-, N03-, S042- and P043-). Proximate compositions were determined using the methods recommended by Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Sensory evaluation was also conducted in order to evaluate consumer acceptability of the sausages. Hedonic scale rating was used to score sensory attributes (appearance, taste, texture, juiciness, flavour, mouthfeel, and overall acceptability) of the sausages. Total Viable Counts and isolation of Escherichia coli were performed using methods of the International Commission on Microbial Specification for Foods (ICMSF). Catfish sausages recorded higher protein levels (18.86% to12.52%) and were low in fat (10.45% to10.87%) compared to pork and mackerel sausages (19.06 to 19.48 and 23.21 to 23.39) respectively. Pork and catfish sausages were able to hold more water than mackerel sausage in both emulsion and sausages. The pH of mackerel and catfish were higher (P<0.05) than pork in both emulsion and sausages. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, arginine, methionine, threonine and leucine levels in pork were higher than those of raw fish (catfish and mackerel). Though raw pork recorded higher values in most of the essential amino acids than raw fish (mackerel and catfish), sausages from mackerel, and catfish recorded higher values, compared to pork sausages. Raw mackerel recorded the highest values in most of the ions determined (except ammonium, potassium and magnesium) followed by catfish and pork, however mackerel and pork sausages without corn starch performed better numerically in the ion deposits. Most of the sensory panelists preferred pork sausages to fish sausages. Very high scores were obtained for the overall product acceptability and for most of the individual sensory attributes. Overall product acceptability was significantly lower (p<0.05) in mackerel sausage. Total Viable Count (TVC) recorded was within the accepted limits (106 and 107cfu/g) for fish and pork respectively. E.coli was not detected in any of treatments during frozen storage for 6 weeks. It was concluded that catfish frankfurter has high nutritive value because it contained less fat with high crude protein and has high cooking yield.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Animal Science College of Agriculture and Natural Resources in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Philosophy (Meat Science), 2015