Developing a Generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System for the Palm Cream Concentrate Canning Industry in Ghana

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August, 2018
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A typical indigenous Ghanaian small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) engaged in palm cream concentrate canning was selected for HACCP study and the generic HACCP system was developed which can be adapted for the entire palm cream concentrate canning industry in Ghana. To manufacture canned palm cream concentrate, fresh and ripen palm fruits are inspected, received, weighed and sorted for their quality. The quality palm fruits are washed, cooked at a temperature of 100°C for 30 minutes, de-pulped into paste, fiber and kernels. The paste with the fiber is squeezed and strained to obtain palm cream. The fine cream is collected and blended with 0.5% salt and heated to a temperature ≥ 70°C for 15 minutes. Empty cans are washed, filled with the hot cream, seamed, washed to get rid of stains and loaded into retort baskets and then hoisted into a vertical retort for sterilization. Retorting is done at 121°C for 60 minutes and then cooled to a temperature of 40°C and the product are removed from the retort and incubated at ambient temperature for 7 days. After which labelling is done and the product are cased and palletized ready for sale. The 14 stages of HACCP implementation including the 7 preparatory steps and the 7 principles of HACCP recommend by (Campden BRI, 2009) were applied to the palm cream concentrate canning process. Each processing step was correctly captured in the process flow diagram and subjected to hazard analysis to identify all potential food safety hazards that are associated with each step. The identified hazards were classified as either physical, chemical or biological and subjected to risk assessment process using a quantitative scoring method to determine the likelihood and severity of each potential hazard which helped to determine significant hazards with each step. The significant hazards were then subjected to critical control point determination using the codex decision tree. Three steps of microbiological significance were identified in the process as CCPs. These are can seaming (CCP# 1), retorting (CPP# 2) and retorted can cooling (CCP# 3). Critical limits were established for these limits as follows: CCP# 1 – can seaming (body hook butting (BHB) > 75%, thickness rating (TR) > 75% and actual overlap (AO) > 1.1mm), CCP# 2 – retorting (120 -122°C for 60 minutes at a pressure of 1bar must be achieved during sterilization) and CCP# 3 – can cooling (incoming cooling water into the retort must be chlorinated to 3 - 4 ppm, residual chlorine content and after cooling, the discharge water should contain ≥ 0.5ppm residual chlorine content). Monitoring and verification procedures were developed for each CCP and corrective actions and record keeping systems have been established for the CCPs.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Science, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Food Quality Management.