Investigation of serum level relationship of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with vitamin D among healthy Ghanaian population

Background The interplay between vitamin D status and inflammatory cytokines in a supposedly sufficient sunshine environment has not well been evaluated. The study sought to determine their association. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 500 healthy adult blood donors from some selected hospitals in Ghana enrolled from June to November 2016. Venous blood samples were obtained from participants, 25(OH)D, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL 10 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Serum levels of 25(OH)D<20ng/ml were classified as being deficient or low. Results The average age of the participants was 27.97 years. No statistically significant association was established between 25(OH) D status, mean age (p=0.1693), and gender (p=0.5461) of study participants. Similarly, the median 25(OH) D (p=0.8392), IL-10 (p=0.5355), TNF-alpha (p=0.9740), and IFN-gamma (p=0.6908) were not significantly different across gender. There was a significantly increased levels of TNF-alpha (p<0.0001) and IFN-gamma (p<0.0001) among participants with 25(OH) D deficiency compared to those without deficiency. Concurrently, participants with 25(OH)D deficiency had a significantly reduced levels of IL-10 (p<0.0001) compared to those without 25 (OH) D deficiency. The most accurate biochemical markers for identifying 25 (OH) D deficiency were IFN gamma (AUC=0.879; p<0.0001) followed by TNF-gamma (AUC=0.849; p<0.0001) and IL-10 (AUC=0.707; p<0.0001). Conclusion There was a significant association between vitamin D levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IFN-gamma) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL 10) among healthy Ghanaian populace.
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BMC Research Notes (2024) 17:64