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- ItemAccumulation of Copper from Application of Copper-Based Fungicides and its Relationship with Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Biomass in Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai District of Ghana(SEPTEMBER, 2016) Kakutey, KingsfordBlack pod disease is a major cause of yield loss in cocoa production worldwide and the disease is mostly controlled by copper-based fungicides. However, prolong usage of these fungicides might have negative impact on soil fauna and other soil chemical properties. Ghana Cocoa Board continues to assist farmers to spray their cocoa farms with copper-based fungicides. This study was conducted in selected cocoa farms and uncultivated forests close to these farms which have never been sprayed with fungicides as reference. The study was to investigate the extent of accumulation of copper from the application of copper-based fungicides and its relationship with soil chemical properties and microbial biomass in three communities namely Akaasu, Kyeikrom and Tuntum in Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai District. Soil samples were collected at two distinct depths, 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. The fresh soil samples were divided into two. One was immediately sieved through 4 mm mesh and stored at 4 0C for the soil microbial test. The other half was air dried, sieved through a 2 mm mesh and stored in plastic bags for the chemical analysis. Results showed that Tuntum cocoa plantation recorded the highest concentration of total copper (286.54 mgkg-1) while Akaasu cocoa plantation recorded the least total copper concentration of (215.63 mgkg-1). Extractable and total copper vary significantly (P < 0.05) in both top and sub soils of the cocoa plantations from their respective reference values. However, soil pH, nitrogen and organic matter from soils of the cocoa plantations did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) from their reference soils. Results from correlation analysis revealed that extractable and total copper in both the top and sub soils correlated negatively with the levels of organic matter. The relationship between extractable and total copper with microbial biomass were also negatively correlated but not significant (P > 0.05) from the regression analysis in all the study locations. The findings have also shown that the concentrations of copper in the soils of cocoa plantations have not reached their critical levels.
- ItemAcid Mine Drainage: Effect of acid mine drainage on water and soil resources within the Bogoso/Prestea Mine Resource. (Bogoso Concessional Area)(FEBURARY, 2009) Afriyie – Debrah, CharlesHeavy metals contamination (As, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd) and other physico-chemical changes (pH, temperature, EC, DO, alkalinity, S042-, free CN) in underground and surface water, and carbonate carbon and sulphate sulfur in soil samples due to the effect of acid mine drainage (AMD) were assessed around Golden Star Resource Mine (Bogoso concession). Underground and surface water samples were collected from seven different sites and soil samples from three different sites within Golden Star Resources Mine (Bogoso concession) between November, 2006 and April, 2007. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the heavy metal concentrations whilst the physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Average total levels of arsenic, iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cadmium were 0.0313, 3.7675, 0.0518, 0.0382, 0.8102 and 0.008 (mg/l) and average dissolved levels were 0.0104, 0.6737, 0.0356, 0.0256, 0.6998 and < 0.005 (mg/l) in surface water respectively. In underground water, average total levels of arsenic, iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cadmium were 0.0058, 5.8220, 0.1676, 0.0339, 0.2521 and 0.0065 (mg/l) whilst average dissolved levels were 0.0050, 4.3496, 0.1219, 0.0215, 0.2239 and 0.006 (mg/l) respectively. Iron and manganese levels in surface and underground waters exceeded Ghana Environmental Protection Agency standards for mining effluent. Differences in pH, temperature, E.C, alkalinity, S042-, iron, Cu, Zn and Mn levels in the seven water samples were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Surface water samples recorded values of EC and S042- ions higher than in underground water samples which exceeded acceptable limits. Carbon and sulfur in soil samples varied from 0.1922 to 1.8247 % and 0.0237 to 1.5830 % respectively. The results of the study showed high impact of AMD on water quality in Bogoso mining area. This effect could be attributed to the release of metals as a result of oxidation of metal-bearing sulphides in the mine dumps and pits at the selected sampling sites. The study showed that addition of lime as a treatment option has not been effective. Hence new conventional methods should be considered in the treatment of acidic water (AMD) in the mining area.
- ItemAcrylamide Exposure and Risks in Most Frequently Consumed Foods in a Total Diet Study(2018-10-31) Siaw, Michelle OppongThe neurotoxic and carcinogenic nature of acrylamide, coupled with the recent emphasis of the “probable carcinogenic” status of acrylamide is a cause for concern requiring further studies. The objective of this study was to determine the carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks associated with the consumption of frequently consumed foods in a Total Diet Study (TDS). From a selection of 80 frequently consumed foods, the acrylamide concentrations in the foods were purified by the QuEChERS method of extraction and purification, and the concentrations of acrylamide were determined using the HPLC. Acrylamide was detected in 82% of all the foods analyzed, and the levels ranged from 1.33×10-3 ± 1.89 to 14.39×10-3 ± 6.33 mg/g. The probabilistic approach was used to model the chronic exposures using the Monte Carlo simulation of the Palisade @Risk software. The mean, 50th and 95th percentile values for acrylamide exposures were in the range of 1.56×10-3 to 1.88×10-2, 3.21×10-4 to 5.85×10-3 and 6.16×10-3 to 8.32×10-2 mg/kg bw/day respectively. The mean and 95th percentile values for the margins of exposure (MOE) for the risk of tumorigenesis and neurotoxicity were below the thresholds, hence posing significant public health concern. Generally, the lifetime cancer risks of male consumers were higher compared to that of the female consumers. The median and 95th percentile consumers presented unacceptable risk, since their lifetime cancer risks were greater than the de minimus (10-6). The elements that imparted the most on the overall lifetime cancer risk of the consumers were the exposure duration and the concentration of acrylamide in the foods. To lower these lifetime cancer risks, mitigation studies can thus, be mounted in order to help lower the concentrations of acrylamide in the foods.
- ItemActuarial Applications of Hierarchical Modeling to Health Insurance Claims(October 22, 2015) Atta-Mensah, MichaelThis study demonstrates actuarial applications that can be performed on the Health insurance claims in the country. To achieve this, data from the CPC scheme in Accra of the NHIA in the year 2013 was employed for the study. this consisted of facility type, number of claims submitted(in-patient and out-patient) and amount submitted (in-patient,out-patient,drugs and services charges). A hierarchical model allowing for frequency, claim type and severity amount to be jointly modeled was used. Based on this hierarchical model, we proceeded to estimate premium values under various conditions, however due to lack of information from the insurer most of these estimates could not be stated categorically. Applications of the study was also made to the Value-at-Risk theory. This fact not withstanding, a case has been made for the consideration of the hierarchical modeling approach to be considered as the means of analyzing health insurance claims since this model takes into consideration not only the loss (severity) amount submitted but also considers most especially factors integral to the planning and budgeting of the insurer, and these are, the frequency and type of claim. The hierarchical modeling approach thus provided further insight which previously was overlooked.
- ItemActuarial modeling of health insurance claim reserves using the chainladder(NOVEMBER, 2019) Opoku, Genevieve;The preparation for outstanding claims is one of the main factors of technical provisions of Insurance company’s liabilities. Minimising the digression of the true amount of reserves from its estimation is one of the major actuarial challenges. Though the NHIA request the use of Chain Ladder method amidst the various actuarial models for reserve, most health insurance companies default in settling their claims on time leading to the pullout of some healthcare service providers in providing services to customers under the defaulters’ schemes. This thesis summarizes the salient techniques typically used for the estimation of outstanding claims reserves in non-life insurance specifically health insurance, including those to estimate the claims development. This research goes for estimation of health claim reserves in Ghana utilizing Inflation-adjusted chain ladder, Mack chain ladder and Bootstrap chain ladder technique. Claim data on Nationwide Medical Insurance Co. Ltd for my examination ranges from January 2008 to December 2017. Results indicate the Inflation-adjusted Chain Ladder had a superior reserve estimate than that of Mack Chain ladder and Bootstrap Chain Ladder methods.
- ItemAdaptation and effects of social media in teaching and learning at the second cycle institution level in Ghana(AUGUST, 2016 ) Dore-Natteh, DorisThe proliferation of social media platforms freely accessible online using cell mobile devices, PCs and the immense interest of this generation of students in such platforms to the detriment of their studies has cause for concern. As it is almost impossible to block students from engaging on these platforms, it therefore becomes imperative to find a way to make them use the social media for useful purposes. The primary reason for this study is to determine the feasibility of adapting the use of social media in teaching and learning; and to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of these media for instructional engagement by instructors and learners at the second cycle institution level in Ghana. In the course of the study, Facebook© and WhatsApp© were used to supplement traditional classroom instruction and the impacts on students' motivation, learning experience and performance were assessed. Qualitative Case Study research method was used for this study. Interviews conducted were transcribed and composed into three phases of sorting out subjective information as suggested by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The results of the study demonstrate positive results in the use of the social media (Facebook and WhatsApp) to augment classroom teaching and learning with respect to students’ motivation, learning experience and performance suggesting effectiveness and efficiency of the instructional blend. Implication of the results is that the findings can be utilized as a reference for educators and curriculum designers to find meaningful use of social media for teaching and learning in second cycle institutions in Ghana. The study however reveals some challenges such as affordance, access to mobiles devices and irregular power supply that need to be addressed in order not exacerbate the problem of digital divide.
- ItemAflatoxin M1 Contamination of Raw Cow Milk, Milk Products and Dietary Exposure(November, 2018) Addo-Boadu, CollinsGlobally, the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products has been reported in many countries and therefore a thorny issue especially for developing countries. Despite the health effects of exposure to Aflatoxin M1 such as acute liver damage, cirrhosis of the liver and tumor induction, studies on occurrence and dietary exposure is generally lacking in Ghana. This study therefore sought to determine the incidence and dietary exposure to Aflatoxin M1 in three selected suburbs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Thirty (30) samples of raw cow’s milk, 30 samples of Burkina drink and 23 locally made cheese (wagashi) were randomly purchased from the three suburbs (Ashaiman, Madina, Nima) in the Greater Accra region and analysed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Solid phase extraction was used for the extraction and clean-up of samples and subsequently analysed using a high-performance chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector and Pyridinium Bromide Perbromide (PBPB) as a post column derivatization agent for detection and quantification. Using a food frequency questionnaire to obtain food consumption estimates and mean body weights, a deterministic approach was used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of AFM1 through raw cow’s milk, burkina drink and wagashi. Five of the thirty milk samples (16.67%) were positive with mean AFM1 levels of ±0.25 ug/l. Seven of the thirty Burkina samples (23.33%) showed presence of AFM1 with mean concentration of ±0.09 ug/l. Five of the cheese samples showed presence of AFM1 with mean concentration of ±0.04 ug/kg. The concentrations of AFM1 were lower in the locally made cheese than in the raw cow’s milk and Burkina drink. All the individual results for each product was above the EU limit of 0.05 ug/kg. For EDI, the results obtained showed that infants recorded the highest mean AFM1 across the three food types and therefore the age group exposed to significant risk. AFM1 intake through wagashi was relatively lower across all age groups compared to burkina drink and raw cow’s milk.
- ItemAllele Frequency Distribution of FGA and D18S51 STR Markers among the Asante Population of Ghana(August, 2017) Agyekum, Harriet BiaaShort tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic loci in the human genome and are used worldwide for forensic identification. STR loci or markers are motifs with 2-6 base pair repeats in the chromosome of an individual. A key problem with STR application is that; in most sub-Saharan African countries of which Ghana forms a part, there is limited knowledge and information concerning allele frequency distributions among different populations. In this study, the allele frequencies of 60 unrelated Asante individuals among the Ghanaian population were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Statistical parameters of forensic importance such as observed and expected heterozygosity (HO and He), homozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) were calculated for the study markers FGA and D18S51. The parameters indicated the effectiveness of the markers in forensic study among the Asante population. The PIC, He and Ho were 0.8580, 0.8704 and 0.3038 for FGA and 0.8358, 0.8530 and 0.2154 for D18S51, respectively. The obtained information on the FGA and D18S51 markers demonstrates that these loci are useful for forensic and identification purposes. This is the first time to establish the frequency distribution of FGA and D18S51 markers of which it is of much importance to the that Asante population and Ghana as a whole.
- ItemAnalysis of Npk in Human Male and Female Urine(January 2010.) Kuwornu, Alfred L. K.This study was to analyze the concentration of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in male, female and composite urine stored over six months and its use in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of separate urine which was stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male, female and composite urine was done for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, temperature, pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in analyzing phosphorus and potassium contents respectively. Nitrogen content was analysed by Kjeldahl digestion and a non-digestion (direct) methods. The temperature, pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer, temperature/ pH meter and a colour chart. The results indicated that the digested female urine nitrogen was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of male urine from month 2 to month 5. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly, male urine phosphorus content was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the female on the 2nd and 3rd months, but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all the different urine. Generally the yield of NPK in all the urine sources peaked on the 4th month. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine N, and the storage time. The phosphorus levels correlated positively to storage time and temperature but weakly negative to pH. Generally, the urine nitrogen strongly correlated positive to potassium but moderately to temperature and pH. The colour of mature urine is yellow for females and brown for males. The NPK contents in both male (30.4(3.4*)-1-43.7) and female (34.4(6.5*)-1-62.8) urine are comparable to chemical fertilizers. However, the digested female urine nitrogen is significantly higher than that of male urine but vice versa for phosphorus for 2nd and 3rd months of storage. Ecosan urinals should be designed to separately collect urine for specific NPK requirements for crop production. This study will help famers and Governments to save money on the importation of chemical fertilisers.
- ItemAn analysis of Runge-Kutta method in non-Newtonian calculus(JUNE, 2015 ) Adnan, ZakariaNon-Newtonian Calculus or Multiplicative calculus can be used as a tool wherever a problem is of exponential (relational) in nature. In this thesis the derivation of the Runge-Kutta Method in the framework of non-Newtonian (Multiplicative) Calculus is presented. The non-Newtonian (Multiplicative) Runge-Kutta Methods of orders 2, 3, and 4 are developed and discussed. The non-Newtonian (Multiplicative) Runge-Kutta Method is tested on some selected examples where the solutions of the ordinary differential equations are known using developed Matlab codes. The results show that for certain family of initial value problem the non-Newtonian (Multiplicative) Runge-Kutta method gives better results to the Ordinary Runge-Kutta method.
- ItemAnalyzing server performance in cloud computing on virtual network infrastructure; using riverbed simulator(August, 2016) Amo-Asuah, CharlesThe research work here is expected to investigate the performance and relations for distributed systems in server use for cloud storage on virtual platforms. With most organizations opting for web based services, the use of virtual networking infrastructure in cloud storage does not only reduce cost and eliminates hardware failures and security risks such as theft of physical components in real world, but also provides a graphical user interface for the topology design allowing for realistic simulation of networks and high performance displaying modules as an added advantage for modern enterprises. This thesis seeks to analyze the behavior and efficiency of server performances in three different scenarios in cloud network using Riverbed Edu 17.5 edition as a virtual network platform simulation tool. Networks with three different server scenarios simulated against time in the network were modeled. The focus was on the server performance at different loads and processing speeds. The simulation was configured for about 100 workstations in a manner that all the applications and users can access the parameters; database, file transfer protocol, hypertext transfer protocol, and email response times on cloud utilization throughputs in two directions. The results for server performance in efficiency and viability is analyzed and evaluated with conclusions drawn as a guiding principle for organizations and companies considering the use or using servers for cloud storage.
- ItemAnti-Diabetic Effect of Aqueous Ripe Fruit Extract of Borassus Aethiopum Mart. (Family: Arecaeae) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats(MARCH, 2016 ) Issaka, JeremiahDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycaemia is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels and is among the top ten causes of death in the world. Borassus aethiopum Mart. (family Arecaceae) is a plant species of Borassus palm found widely across Africa. It serves an important source of food, providing edible fruits, and nuts, and also has a number of pharmacological uses that have been reported in some parts of the world. This study explored the phytochemical constituents and antidiabetic properties of ripe fruit extract of B. aethiopum in alloxanized experimental rats for 7 and 28 days. Normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated with fruit extract of borassus (FEB) at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Body weight, relative organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters were measured in both acute and sub chronic studies. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, saponins, glycosides, triterpenoids and alkaloids. Fasting blood glucose was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats in acute study at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in sub chronic studies. White blood cell count (WBC) and platelets (PLT) levels were significantly increased after treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight. Urea and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) levels also reduced significantly in both acute and sub chronic studies. The experiment supports the traditional use of B. athiopum as a medicinal plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- ItemThe Anti-Lipidemic Effect of Borassus aethiopum „Oman Kube‟ on Individuals with Cardiovascular Disease at the 37 Military Hospital in Accra, Ghana(AUGUST, 2017) Peprah, MarianThere is a rise in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally and it is expected that by 2030, related death associated with CVD will be about 23.6 million mainly from heart disease and stroke. Obesity and lifestyle changes have been attributed as the main causes. Obesity associated with dyslipidemia is one of the factors known to initiate atherogenesis in CVD progression. A single blinded randomized placebo-controlled trail was conducted on 122 CVD patients at the Medical Department of the 37 Military Hospital in Accra, Ghana. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-lipidemic effect of Borassus aethiopum among individuals with CVDs. The Borassus aethiopum pulp was used as composite flour for bread. Sensory analysis, phytochemicals present and microbial analysis was conducted on the composite bread. About 150g dough weight of bread was consumed by participants daily for three months. Participants were randomized into two groups. Baseline and post interventional BMI, visceral fat, body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C) were determined. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 23. The Borassus composite bread contained flavonoids, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, sterols and steroids with microbes within accepted levels (1.75×103 ±7.07 cfu/g for flour and 2.31×103 ±7.07 cfu/g for the bread). Participants recruited included, 63.9% female and 36.1% male, age ranging from 19 to 70 years. Most (99.2%) were diagnosed of hypertension, dyslipidemia or both. Diabetes mellitus (7.4%), and stroke (1.6%) with 37.7% on lipid lowering medication. Some female 53.3% and some male 7.3% were centrally obese. Baseline systolic blood pressure above normal was 73.8% and diastolic 81.9%, reducing significantly after intervention (p = 0.019, 0.001) respectively. Using the NCEP ATP 111 (2002) guidelines, significant reduction was observed in participants total cholesterol above the normal range and between groups (p=0.002). At baseline, the mean results for LDL-C was 3.4±1.2 for females and 3.3±1.3 for males. These saw some significant reduction among those who were given the composite bread (p=0.0002). Even though 90.1% of participant‟s TG and (female-97.6% and male-94.8%) HDL-C recorded normal levels, reductions in their means were also recorded. Among female participants, strong association existed only between their TC and LDL-C (r-0.930; p=0.000) and TC and HDL-C (r=0.460 p= 0.000). Weaker associations were realised between some other parameters. Similar associations were realised within parameters male participants. Strong correlations existed between Systolic and diastolic (r-0.725 p=0.000), TC and LDL-C (r-0.900 p=0.000) and TC and HDL-C (r-0.526 p=0.000). Among those on medication, significant reductions were realised in systolic (p=0.005), diastolic (p-value=0.0003), LDL-C (p=0.048) and HDL-C (p=0.00039) after intervention. With respect to their anthropometries, with the exception of waist circumference, no significant difference was seen in participant on the various medications. Borassus aethiopum composite bread was seen to reduce appreciably the TC, LDL-C and WC of cardiovascular patients in the study, irrespective of the medication and dosage participant were on.
- ItemAnti-Nociceptive And Anti-Inflammatory Effectsof An Ethanolic Extract Oftheaerial Parts Of Hilleria Latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)(FEBRUARY,2011) Abotsi, Wonder Kofi MensahPain and inflammation remain a real and current problem in clinical medicine and require new agents with improved efficacy for more effective therapy. The aerial parts of the perennial herb Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Family: Phytolaccaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful and inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, some neurobehavioural properties as well as toxicity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia in animal models. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the Hilleria latifolia extract (HLE) revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids as well as small amounts of flavonoids and alkaloids. HLE (10–300 mg kg-1, p.o.), together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), showed significant anti-nociceptive activity in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail immersion test) behavioural pain models in rodents. The anti-nociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), theophylline (a non-selective adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist) and atropine (a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist). Cyproheptadine (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist), ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), nifedipine (L-type Voltage-gated calcium channel blocker), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor) and NG-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester /L-NAME (a NO synthase inhibitor), however, did not significantly block the anti-nociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its anti-nociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the anti-nociceptive effects of HLE. Interestingly also, chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Hexamethonium antagonised the neuronal nicotinic effects of HLE on isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related anti-nociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain—without tolerance induction—through mechanisms that may involve an interaction with adenosinergic, nicotinic cholinergic, muscarinic cholinergic and opioidergic pathways. iii Oral administration of HLE (10-300 mg kg-1, p.o.), either pre-emptively or curatively, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced foot oedema in 7-day old chicks with maximal inhibitions of 38.11±5.55 % (pre-emptive) and 30.91±4.66 % (curative). Similarly, the NSAID diclofenac (10-100 mg kg-1, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the oedema by 59.33±10.82 % and 42.87±7.46 % respectively for pre-emptive and curative treatments. Dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg-1, i.p.), a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent inhibited the oedema with maximal effect of 42.77±7.64 % (pre-emptive) and 36.60±6.76 % (curative). In the Freund‘s adjuvant induced-arthritis model in rats, HLE as well as the positive controls, dexamethasone and methotrexate, showed significant anti-arthritic properties when applied to established adjuvant arthritis. Oral administration of HLE (10-300 mg kg-1 p.o.) significantly reduced oedema in the ipsilateral paw of rats with a maximal inhibition of 32.64± 2.74 %. HLE (10-300 mg kg-1 p.o.), however, did not significantly affect joint oedema or systemic arthritic spread which is usually indicated by the inhibition of the spread of the oedema from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paw. The DMARD methotrexate (0.1-1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg-1, i.p ) reduced very significantly the total polyarthritic oedema as well as the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. In all the in vitro antioxidant tests performed, with the exception of the total phenol assay and total antioxidant capacity, n-propyl gallate was used as the reference antioxidant. The extract (0.03-1 mg ml-1) exhibited Fe3+ reducing activity (EC50=2.071±0.782 mg ml-1), scavenged DPPH (EC50 =0.2269±0.037 mg ml-1) and prevented lipid peroxidation (IC50 =0.1122±0.010 mg ml-1). N-propyl gallate showed similar effects like the extract but was more potent. The total phenol content of HLE was estimated to be 29.40±1.09 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of HLE while the total antioxidant capacity was 55.16±13.60 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g of HLE. These findings reveal that the extract has antioxidant properties which may partly account for its anti-inflammatory activity. Neurobehavioural properties of HLE were evaluated in various behavioural paradigms—elevated plus maze (EPM), the light/dark box, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and pentobarbitone sleeping time test. HLE (10-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) displayed anxiolytic activity similar to diazepam in all the anxiety models used by significantly increasing the number of inter-compartment transitions and time spent in the lit area of the light/dark box as well iv as significantly increasing open arm entries, percentage open arm entries and percentage open arm time in the EPM. The extract (10-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) also exhibited antidepressant effects by reducing the duration of immobility in both the FST and TST. The extract (10-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) neither modified motor performance in the beam walk test nor caused CNS depression in the pentobarbitone sleeping time test. These results suggest that the extract has anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral route in rats. During the experiment, no deaths were observed in any groups and there were no remarkable changes in general appearance, as well as in food and water consumption. The LD50 of HLE was estimated to be above 3000 mg kg-1. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of H. latifolia was 300 mg kg-1. No significant changes were observed in haematological parameters, body weights and organ/body weight ratios. There were, however, significant changes in some serum biochemical parameters (plasma proteins and serum bilirubin) of extract-treated groups compared to control. No significant histopathological changes were noted in the kidneys, stomach, liver and spleen of rats at extract doses up to 1200 mg kg-1. Based on these findings, it can be inferred that HLE is relatively non-toxic in rats but has the potential to cause toxicity at high dose levels—demanding that caution be taken when using H. latifolia for medicinal purposes. Putting all together, this study has shown that the ethanolic extract of Hilleria latifolia aerial parts has anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. The extract also has low oral toxicity but should be used with caution.
- ItemAntibacterial use and resistance pattern at the accident and emergency Department of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital(MARCH, 2015) Appiah, DanielBackground and Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is a major problem all over the world due to indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antimicrobials both in healthcare facilities and in communities. The Accident and Emergency Department (AED) serves as a major area where antimicrobial therapy is initiated for severe infections but data on use of antimicrobial agents in these setting are lacking in Africa. This study aim was to determine the appropriateness of antibacterial use as well as antibacterial resistance patterns of commonly isolated bacteria at AED of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Methodology: This was prospective observational study undertaken from 1st March to 30th April, 2014. Two hundred and eighty-two patients at the AED wards were selected by systematic random sampling from 1119 patients exposed to antibacterials out of total 1942 admitted within the study period. These patients were then followed on daily for data on antibacterial use. From 85 of the admitted patients, 90 specimens were taken for culture and sensitivity testing at the Medical Microbiology laboratory of KATH. The specimens included blood (n=37), others such as ascitic fluid, pleural fluid and knee joint aspirate (n=28), urine (n=15), cerebrospinal fluid (n=5) and wound swab (n=5). Appropriateness of antibacterial use was assessed based on recommendations in the Standard Treatment Guidelines-2010 of Ghana and other international standard guidelines accepted globally and adapted by clinicians at KATH. Results: In all 1119 out of 1942 patients encountered within the study period were prescribed antibacterials, representing a prevalence of 57.6%. Of the 282 sampled, 61.7% (n=174) were on curative antibacterial therapy and 38.3% (n=108) were on prophylactic therapy. Cefuroxime was vi the most prescribed antibacterial agent (DDD/100days: parenteral 36.119; oral 75.850) and Doxycycline (DDD/100days: oral 16.689) was the least prescribed. Seventy percent (n=196) of antibacterial prescriptions were considered appropriate based on recommendations in the approved standard guidelines. For those patients on curative antibacterial therapy who were followed (n=123), 15.4% (n=19) died, 56.1% (n=69) had improvement in their clinical status and general well-being, and 28.5% (n=35) had their symptoms worsening. Twenty-six percent (n=23) of the 90 specimens recorded bacterial growth. The most common isolates were E. coli (n=10), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (n=6, possibly contaminants of blood and ascitic fluid specimens), Klebsiella spp (n=4), Pseudomonas spp (n=2) and MRSA (n=1). Over 70% of the E. coli isolates tested were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole. The Klebsiella isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: The rate of antibacterial prescribing at AED was high, with a third of the prescriptions considered inappropriate. Klebsiella and E coli isolates from patient samples sent to the laboratory were resistant to broad spectrum antibacterial agents like ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Antimicrobial agents should therefore be used more responsibly, guided by culture and sensitivity data for definitive therapy. This would minimize morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases as well as the risk of emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals.
- ItemAntibiotics in Ghanaian environment: occurrence, uptake, model and risk assessment of vegetables irrigated with low quality water(March, 2016) Azanu, DavidHospital wastewater and effluents from waste stabilization ponds in Kumasi, Ghana, are directly discharged as low quality water into nearby streams which are eventually used to irrigate vegetables. The presence of 12 commonly used antibiotics in Ghana (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, cefuroxime, sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) were investigated in the water samples. Greenhouse uptake studies of tetracycline and amoxicillin antibiotics by lettuce and carrot plants were performed and then used for modelling uptake of antibiotics using STELLA® software. Finally, the occurrence of these 12 antibiotics in lettuces irrigated with low quality water in Kumasi Ghana were investigated. Antibiotics in the water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction, the plants samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction followed by clean up on SPE. All samples were analyzed on HPLC-MS/MS. The total load of antibiotics discharged through the WSP effluents and hospital wastewater was up to 3.1 g/day. Low quality water used for vegetable irrigation considered for this study had antibiotics concentrations up to 0.2 ppb. Interestingly, the concentrations of antibiotics in irrigation water were not significantly different from that of the stream samples (p = 0.03). The concentrations of antibiotics determined in lettuce collected from vegetable farms and markets in Kumasi, Ghana ranged from 13.5 to 104.3 ng/kg. Seven out of 12 antibiotics investigated were detected in at least one sample. Estimated daily intakes of erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole for the consumption of lettuce were 6.4 x 10-7 and 2.0 x 10-7 μg/kg body weight/d respectively. These estimated daily intakes are several times lower than acceptable daily intakes of 0.5 and 50 μg/kg body weight/d respectively, implying no toxic effect to human consumption. The outcomes of this study suggest there could be indirect exposure of humans to antibiotics through vegetable consumption and drinking water in Ghana. Although the levels found in lettuce plant could not cause toxic effect to human’s further research needs to be v investigated since low levels of antibiotics in food and low quality water could contribute to development of bacterial resistance.
- ItemAntimicrobial Activity Profile of the Constituents of Four Ghanaian Aromatic Medicinal Plants(FEBRUARY, 2010) Emmanuel, Osei-AkosahThe study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activities of four Ghanaian aromatic medicinal plants and their respective major antimicrobial constituents. The petroleum ether (40 -60oC), ethanol, aqueous extracts and as well as the essential oils from the leaves of four Ghanaian aromatic medicinal plants [Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.(Cinnamon), Psidium guajava Linn.(Guava), Ocimum gratissimum Linn.(Ocimum), Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich (Xylopia)] were tested using the Agar Diffusion method for their antimicrobial activity against two gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one fungus (Candida albicans). The ethanolic extracts of the four (4) samples were fractionated according to Mistscher‟s scheme of fractionation and the resulting fractions were also tested against the five microorganisms by the Agar diffusion test. All the petroleum ether extracts were active against all the microorganisms except Xylopia aethiopica which showed activity against P.aerugionsa and C. albicans only. The petroleum ether extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves showed the highest zones of inhibition against all five test organisms followed by Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Psidium guajava and Xylopia aethiopica. The ethanolic extracts of the four samples showed zones of inhibition poorly compared to those of the petroleum extract except for Psidium guajava. The ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava inhibited strongly the growth of all test organisms compared to its corresponding petroleum ether extract. The aqueous extract of Psidium guajava was the only aqueous extract which showed activity against the microorganisms. The ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was active against E. coli and C. albicans. However, the ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica were not active at all against the test organisms. The essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum was the most active of the four (4) essential oils followed by Psidium guajava, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and lastly Xylopia aethiopica essential oils. The Ocimum gratissimum essential oil had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) range of 1.0 x 10-5 % to 0.158%, Psidium guajava had 3.98 x 10-3 to 0.251%, Cinnamomum zeylanicum had 6.31x10-2 to 0.251% whiles Xylopia aethiopica oil had 3.98x10-2 to 1.26%. All the acidic or phenolic fractions (components or constituents) except Xylopia aethiopica were active against the test organisms. The terpenoidal, waxes and alkaloidal fractions or components showed various levels of activity against the test microorganisms. It was only the water soluble quaternary alkaloidal fractions which could not reveal any significant activity against the test microorganisms.
- ItemAntimycobacterial Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants and Formulations in the Management of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis(June, 2016) Ankomah, RichardRecent years have witnessed an increase in the use and search for new drugs derived from plants. Microbiologists, Ethnopharmacologists, Botanists, Natural-product chemists and other related bodies are all trying to discover phytochemicals that could be developed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is an endemic and pandemic bacterial disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Treatment, prevention and the rate at which tuberculosis is spreading has been the concern of World Health Organization and individuals. Isoniazid, Ramfipicin, and Ethambutol, among others have been the drugs of choice for the treatment of tuberculosis; however, these drugs take longer periods of time before their positive effects are noticed and experienced and may even produce adverse side effects on the human system. In this study, nine medicinal plants were selected through ethno-botanical survey in Southern part of Ghana. These medicinal plants used to treat respiratory diseases, stomach ailments and other microbial infections were evaluated for their anti-tubercular activity. The nine selected plant species were tested individually and as part of formulations against drug sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv) and Mycobacterium bovis at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/ml using Lowenstein-Jensen egg medium at bacteriology department of KCCR and Nougchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research. Phytoconstituents observed were terpenoids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, and alkaloids. Allium sativum inhibited the growth of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv) and Mycobacterium bovis at concentrations of 5.0 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml with other individual plants inhibiting the test organisms at 5.0 mg/ml. Formulations from a combination of Allium sativum and Lantana hispida formulation also inhibited the growth of both strains at the lowest concentration of 1.0mg/ml with other formulations inhibiting to varying degrees. Thus, Allium sativum and a formulation from a combination of Allium sativum and Lantana hispida exhibited great potential in inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis; hence could be used to manage infections caused by these microbes. The study has also scientifically substantiate the used of selected medicinal plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis in Ghana and also revealed scientifically that, there is high potential of medicinal plants which can treat tuberculosis even better than the standard drugs.
- ItemAntinutrient Contents of Ackee (Blighia Sapida) Arils as Influenced by some Processing Methods(JUNE, 2017 ) Asiamah, George SethAckee (Blighia sapida) is a good source of food nutrients but the presence of anti-nutrients in it reduces its nutritional potential. To improve its nutritional potential the effects of moist heat treatments (boiling and steaming) at varying times (20 minutes, 30 minutes and 40 minutes) and soaking at varying times (1hr, 2hrs and 3hrs) on the levels of anti-nutrients (phytates, oxalates and tannins) were investigated. Standard methods were employed for the analysis of anti-nutrients. The phytate, oxalate and tannin content of raw ackee arils in this study were found to be 0.08175%, 0.3075% and 136.18 mg/100g, respectively. The processing methods employed; boiling, steaming and soaking had an effect on the anti-nutrients in the ackee arils. Boiling was the most effective method at reducing phytate content. It was able to reduce it by 80% after 40 minutes. Again, for oxalate boiling was able to reduce it by 67.07% in the ackee arils and was the most effective method amongst the selected methods; steaming and soaking. Tannin content was reduced by both boiling and steaming processes up to 68.71% and 67.08% after 40 minutes. Reduction of the anti-nutrients by the selected processing methods was time-dependent. Employing the use of these processing methods in the utilization of ackee arils will help improve their nutrients availability and make it more nutritious.
- ItemAntioxidant Micronutrients Intake in People Living with HIV: Implications on Serum Levels and Liver Function(OCTOBER, 2017) Kpewou, Daniel EdemThe Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are known to cause oxidative stress which has the tendency to cause damage to body organs such as the liver, affecting their functions. Antioxidants are important to prevent oxidative stress or mitigate it. Even though some of these antioxidants can be acquired from the diet, there is insufficient data about their intakes among PLWH in Ghana. This study therefore sought to assess the intakes of these antioxidant nutrients and the serum levels of two of them, vitamin E and zinc and their possible effect on liver function of people living with HIV (PLWH) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) clinic at the Volta Regional Hospital in Ho. To achieve this, 103 HIV infected adults on antiretroviral therapy were randomly sampled from a list of possible participants. A 3- day 24hr recall and a food frequency questionnaire were employed to assess vitamins A, C, E and zinc as well as energy, carbohydrates, fats and proteins intakes. Serum levels of vitamin E and zinc as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. Pre HAART levels of AST and ALT as well as ARV drug intake history were also acquired from hospital records. The results showed that participants had lower median caloric (1680Kcal) and fat (54g) intakes. Median daily dietary intakes of vitamins C, D and E were 54mg, 2μg and 3mg respectively and were lower than recommended intake levels. Serum vitamin E deficiency was observed to be high among the participants (82.5%). The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in the study were 11.7%, 21.4% and 11.7% respectively. There was a significant rise in serum AST levels, from 22.0 IU/L pre HAART to 30.4 IU/L post HAART initiation. Serum levels of ALT significantly decreased from 17.0 IU/L pre- HAART to 13.0 IU/L post-HAART. There was no association between the serum levels of vitamin E and zinc and serum AST and ALT levels. The findings from this study suggest that, serum levels of antioxidant micronutrients, vitamin E and zinc, did not have any effect on liver function.