College of Art and Built Environment

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    Theoretical foundation of the KNUST Painting programme: A philosophical Inquiry and its Contextual Relevance in Ghanaian Culture
    (2006-04-27) Seidou, Kari Kacha
    In the few times the College of Art, Ghana has surfaced in any influential study, there has been a general silence over its intellectual legacy...
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    Contractors’ Adaptation to Environmentally Sustainable Construction Processes.
    (NOVEMBER, 2016 ) Sarfo, Mensah
    Environmental sustainability is foundational to achieving the global goals of sustainable development. The construction industry has a significant role to play in pursuance of environmental sustainability. However, stakeholders in the industry lack capability and understanding to adapt to environmental sustainability practices in construction. There are lack of guidelines for understanding and promoting sustainable construction, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop a framework that will provide guidelines for contractors to build capacity for Environmentally Sustainable Construction (ESC) processes. Four theories; the Resilience, Ecological Modernization, Institutional and Social Network theories have been adopted to facilitate understanding of the complexities surrounding adaptation to ESC. Through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, qualitative data have been collected from large scale contractors in the country. The data have been analysed using data matrix and template thematic analysis techniques. Adopting an abductive approach, a back and forth iteration between findings and the theories have been applied to facilitate development of the framework. Contractors act within social-ecological system of the construction industry. The inability of these system actors to adapt to ESC is attributed to legislative, socio-cultural and other barriers. Improving knowledge of clients and other stakeholders in ESC processes would enable ESC adaptation. Formation of social network of contractors and collaboration with ‘non-contractor’ stakeholders are also primary to creation of drivers and enablers of ESC. Other frameworks developed for sustainable construction in developing and emerging economies do not provide stakeholder-specific guidelines for developing the needed capability to achieve sustainable construction. The framework developed in this research zeroes in on providing guidelines and strategies for contractors, as iv construction industry stakeholders, to achieve capability for adapting to ESC processes. The contribution of this research is that studies directed towards achieving sustainability in construction industry have been advanced through application of relevant multidisciplinary theories. The significance of this study is that, in line with the ‘Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries’ recommendation, guidelines for contractors to attain capability for sustainable construction have been provided. For successful implementation of the framework, it is recommended that the guidelines provided are to be integrated into a contractor’s organisational policy. ‘Establishing and enforcing’ governmental regulations on ESC is a key driver for bringing contractors’ adaptation to ESC into reality.
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    Application of the Choosing by Advantages Decision System to Enhance User-Involvement in the Design Process
    (2017-01-30) Kpamma, Zoya Evans
    Activities at the design stage of the construction project delivery process have been found to significantly impact value generation and delivery. There is, thus, the need to adopt design management practices to enhance the value of construction projects. One dimension of meeting the value requirements of construction projects is the involvement of stakeholders, such as users, in design process. Even though various aspects of stakeholder involvement have been researched, limited knowledge exists on how stakeholders can participate in a process to gain insights into their needs and establish their values. Little is also known of how the involvement of stakeholders can be staged, such that project participants can interact and discuss needs and concerns. This results in the need to explore an innovative strategy, in the form of a userinvolvement framework, to create a space where designers and other stakeholders, such as users, can collaboratively define and generate project value. Since the design process is punctuated by various instances of decisions, such a framework should incorporate a group decision-making process, such as choosing by advantages (CBA). The aim of this research addresses this need by ultimately proposing a user-involvement framework that incorporates the CBA decision system. The objectives of the research, thus, included: to identify the potential in CBA to foster collaboration between designers and users; to identify strategies to incorporate CBA in a user-involvement framework; to design a user-involvement framework incorporating CBA; to evaluate the practicality of the framework; and to reflect the contribution of the framework to theory. In line with the constructive research paradigm, the design of the framework was based on a combination of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Theoretical knowledge originated from reviewing literature on participatory design, lean design, design process management, team process, and the CBA decision system. Empirical knowledge emanated from three exploratory case studies involving the application of CBA by respective design teams to involve users in typical design decisions for some selected projects. The resulting framework, known as CBA-incorporated User-involvement Framework (CBAUF), is made up of six performance episodes linked by reciprocal dependency loops. The performance episodes include, i) compose a team; ii) define project value; iii) identify and anticipate decision-making frames; iv) enforce decisioniv making frames (apply CBA); v) implement decisions (deliver virtual value); and vi) run product (experience virtual value). The workability of CBAUF was demonstrated in an evaluation case study with respect to its completeness, simplicity, elegance, efficiency, operationality and generality. Among others, the research contributes to knowledge by providing: i) an empirical evaluation of the collaborative attributes of the CBA decision system; ii) an analysis of the functioning of the CBA decision system in the context of the wicked problems in participatory design; and iii) An insight into how CBA could be combined with other lean design tools such as Target Value Design (TVD), Set Based Design (SBD), A3 and Building Information Modeling (BIM) to enhance collaboration between designers and users for project value generation. Based on the contributions to knowledge, the discussion on the application of CBA in lean design can be expanded to include exploring the integration of CBAUF with more lean tools such as the Last Planner System (LPS) and Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) towards waste minimization in design process by improving design process schedule predictability.
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    Technical Problems and Solutions in the Indigenous Leather Industry: Implications for Art Education in Ghana
    (2008-07-12) Boahin, John Osei Bobie
    Leatherwork is an art form that has a strong traditional foundation in Ghana; it is practiced in diverse forms in different areas of Ghana, particularly in the three regions in the northern part of Ghana where production is highly concentrated. The Ghana government’s desire to promote the indigenous vocations in schools has necessitated the improvement of the technologies used by indigenous leatherworkers. 21 Some pertinent problems affecting the industry were identified these are (a) Lack of simple but efficient tools and equipment for the execution of the tanning process, (b) Poor quality leather resulting in offensive odour and its susceptibility to grow moulds as a result of fungal attack, (c) Non-fast vegetable based dyes that easily fade in the presence of sunlight and also bleeds when washed, and (d) Limited colour range of red, black, white and brown. The research will lead to the following solutions to the identified problems: (a) The production of new tanning equipment comprising, tanning vessels, scudding, tumbling and cutting machines will improve the leatherwork industry. (b) That, leatherworkers will be able to produce some working tools locally. (c) That alternative local colourants can be applied on leather. (d) The offensive odour and the fungus attack on leather will be subdued. Solutions to these identified technical problems associated with traditional leatherwork techniques to make it attractive to leatherwork education in Ghana are the focus of this project. The results of the research were attained through the experimental research methods The research lead to the following solutions to the identified technical problems: (a) introduction of alternative tanning vessels that will be useful for academic and commercial purposes, and make it possible for tanning to be done indoors and outdoors; (b) Development of scudding equipment for dehairing and fleshing, the equipment makes it possible for the craftsman to do scudding in a more comfortable posture for increase in productivity; (c) Design and construction of 22 two types of leather dryers, open- dryer and electric-dryer; (d) Tumbling equipment for boarding oil into leathers and also softening leathers and fur, and (e) Thong cutter for cutting long strips of leather for thonging or weaving. The research also identified alternative colourants that are locally available for colouring leather; these are grouped into two, Dyes and Pigments. Dye; The dyes were vat dye and suede dye, these proved to be useful on leather. and the identified pigments were oil paint and acrylic which were successfully applied on leather. Starch was also mixed successfully with vat dye as pigment in colouring leather. The research also identified techniques for controlling the offensive odour associated with indigenous tanned leathers and fur, and prevents the development of moulds on them in order to promote the marketing of leather articles locally and awaken the export of leather articles which has not been very attractive due to these problems. The findings of the research will help in the promotion of leatherwork education and the indigenous leather industry in Ghana It is recommended that specially equipped studios be built in schools at all levels for the teaching of every aspect of leatherwork to sustain the manpower needs of the industry. Beside, a research Center must be established to support the industry in the areas of design, material and technological development to meet modern needs as well as boost up national development.