Developing three-dimensional instructional materials from locally available resources for Science Education in Primary Schools, Ghana

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September, 2014
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The use of instructional materials and its impact on the teaching and learning process in primary schools have been highly expounded on as well as the adverse effects of the non-use of these aids. In situations where there is non-use or insufficient materials, research has suggested improvisation of instructional materials from resources that are available in the immediate environment for teaching and learning purposes by teachers and instructors. This study delved into the use of locally available resources and how they can be used to develop three-dimensional instructional materials for Science education in the Weweso M/A Primary School. The research being qualitative was descriptive and experimental in orientation; it adopted observation and interview as data gathering instruments to identify and describe existing instructional materials used in the selected school, what materials they are made of, how they are used for teaching and learning, the shortcomings associated with their use as well as their impact on pupils’ learning. It also enabled the description of the developed prototypes on teaching and learning of Science. Convenience and purposive sampling techniques were adopted; sampling 155 respondents–150 pupils, 4 teachers and 1 head teacher. The study identified locally available resource materials and developed them into three-dimensional models to teach topics that teachers had tagged as difficult to teach with or without the available instructional materials. The developed prototypes were tested in various classes to ascertain their effect on the teaching and learning of Science and the effect on pupils’ demeanour in the classroom. The study identified that the use of the models made it possible for teachers to finish topics within the allotted periods and had enough time to assess pupils. The lessons were enhanced with pupils demonstrating understanding since concepts were no longer being taught theoretically and abstractly but practically demonstrated. Pupils’ participation in the classroom was greatly affected with pupils who had been spectators in the classroom participating fully in lessons. The usual noisy environment during lessons was highly curbed because pupils’ attention was sustained during lessons.
A thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Art Education.