College of Art and Built Environment
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- ItemAssessing the implications of cost overruns in the construction industry in Ghana(2021-07-14) Nartey, Monica Korkor;The issue of cost overruns in construction has indeed marred the quest for monetary worth in contracts executed as the country gears up to fill infrastructural gap as part of efforts towards national development. The existence of cost overruns has also affected the significant contributions aimed at the improvement to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Cost overruns inevitably yield overruns in construction of projects, the effects of which results in slippage of project schedules, a situation which does not augurs well for the construction industry. This, undoubtedly, creates implication of the variations in the budgets earmarked for the construction. In view of this, the study assessed the implications of cost overruns in the construction industry in Ghana. As a research design based on qualitative and quantitative approaches, the study relied on purposive sampling technique, a sample size of 117 respondents was selected for data collection. A 100% response rate was achieved in the questionnaire administration. There should also be explicit legal regime so as to legislate for the contractors and consultants to ensure that the best practices and standards tenets of construction cost estimates are carried out within the legal framework so as to manage cost overruns in construction. The key findings of study included inadequate skilled in estimating total project cost and disrespect for expert advice by contractors. It was also discovered that, problem of non-compliance with laid down rules concerning bidding for contracts, lack of appropriate bidding process and inadequate measures for evaluating the projects under construction are contributing factor. Among the key recommendations of the study was that there should be effective evaluation of project-cost relationship by the appropriate agencies tasked with the above stated responsibility. Regular time-cost trade-off analysis should be undertaken at all levels of the progress of the contract to be diligently carried out so as to shorten the project duration and to further get rid of any possible emergence of cost overruns in construction.
- ItemA building information modelling (BIM) approach to improving collaboration among construction stakeholders in Ghana(2021-07-14) Ash-Shaiku, Mohammed Faaku;Collaboration is essential to the success of construction projects but there seems to be no clear guide on the process of collaboration creating difficulties for stakeholders to effectively interact and achieve a common project goal within the bounds of cost, quality and time. The construction industry has most often used Collaboration as innovative tool towards the attainment of project objectives. This study sought to identify how Collaborative practices among Stakeholders in the Ghanaian Construction Industry can be improved using a Building Information Modelling (BIM) approach. Guided by the research objectives, this study elicited responses from construction professionals who have worked as consultants in their line of work. The data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), descriptive statistical tools and measures which included tables, mean and standard deviation. In identifying the challenges of the conventional collaboration, it emerged from this research that Lack of long-term relationship, Lack of reciprocal commitment, Lack of Resource sharing, The Fear of micromanagement in collaboration, Differences in organizational culture of partners, Undefined roles and responsibilities of partners, Lack of Management commitment, Incentive Alignment, Poor management by partners, and Interpersonal relationship emerged as the top ten (10) challenges. Data analyzed revealed that, the uncertainty/high initial cost of BIM, Lack of standardized guidelines and protocols for practice, Lack of Financial Resources, Lack of Professionals with BIM knowledge, Resistance to change, Lack of clarity on who bares possible incremental project cost, Information Accuracy, Lack of industry digitization, Lack of BIM training for professionals and Lack of network capabilities are the ten (10) topmost challenges to BIM adoption and implementation. In conclusion. The study concluded that collaboration is an essential part of the construction industry because of its fragmented nature which seems to converge so many professionals to a construction project with project success as its goal. Hence, Management of Consultancy firms must invest resources into obtaining Building Information Modelling (BIM) and train their professionals to be well equipped in its usage and Construction professionals must not allow their personal indifferences or disagreements to affect the efficient collaboration needed on construction projects.
- ItemPost occupancy evaluation of contemporary educational buildings in Ghana. A case study of the KNUST/IDL Building at Kwabenya(2021-07-14) Adjei, Michael Paa Kwesi;The general notion in most public buildings is that occupants are comfortable with their indoor environmental conditions so long as they report to work and carry out their assigned duties. Such a notion has led to failure to consider it necessary to monitor and evaluate occupants’ perception of comfort in their respective working environments. Essentially, the value of systematic learning from Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is primarily to identify additional benefits that can be obtained from the evaluation allowing for the fine tuning to enhance the performance of future buildings. The study adopted POE and its rationale as a building feedback mechanism. The aim of the study was to conduct a POE of contemporary educational buildings in Ghana. The study narrowed down to the particular case of the KNUST/IDL building at Kwabenya in Accra. The objectives were to evaluate the performance of the case study building and to identify areas of improvement of contemporary educational buildings in Ghana. The study adopted qualitative research approach to evaluate the subjective responses of occupants in the case study building. Instruments for data collection included interviews, observation and case study approach. 94 respondents out of a population of about 658 participated in the study. Data was presented in the form of descriptive and explanatory narrations using content analysis for analyzing the data. Results showed that extensive use of glazing permit high penetration of solar radiation and heat gain leading to poor indoor environmental conditions. Results also showed that extensive use of glazing has led to the heavy integration of HVAC systems to achieve human comfort in contemporary educational buildings in Ghana. The study concluded that dissatisfaction with the built environment has negative effects on the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. The study recommended that passive design strategies which are sustainable, economical and environmentally friendly can be used to achieve human comfort.
- ItemIntegrating indigenous vegetable tanned leather with fabric in mixed-media pictorial art for value enhancement.(2021-07-14) Duah, Mercy;The challenging economic conditions across the globe and the competitive world market have resulted in vigorous efforts by stakeholders to exploit every available opportunity within their geographical locations such as cultural or natural resources to make economic gains out of them. The use of indigenous vegetable tanned leather for the production of pictorial art through the appliqué technique is not common in the industry and considering the contemporary people’s rush for new things that have evolved from innovative ideas, it is prudent to take advantage and pursue research in this area and thus expand the horizon for the use of Ghanaian indigenous vegetable tanned leather. Therefore the researcher aimed at integrating indigenous vegetable tanned leather with fabric in the production of mixed-media pictorial art. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set: to identify selected types of pictorial art forms produced with mixed- media; to demonstrate the practicability of manipulating indigenous vegetable tanned leather for integration with fabric in mixed-media for the production of pictorial art; and to appreciate the integration of indigenous vegetable tanned leather with fabric in the production of mixed-media pictorial art. In this regard, the researcher employed the qualitative method and the descriptive design as the main methodology towards establishing real facts and describing vividly the processes in achieving the main objective. The observational approach was used in identifying selected materials possible for mixed-media pictorial art where the researcher assessed them based on their characteristics. In conclusion, leather and fabric provide convenient grounds for integration since both materials are fibre based and other materials such as wood, jute, clay, metal, can be integrated when proper investigation is made into their characteristics and properties.
- ItemEffective utilization of designed patterned (Motifs) fabrics in garment construction: dressmakers in Ghana as a case(2021-07-14) Amoakoh, Mercy Ampofowah;Most fabrics used in Ghana have communicative values, especially the African prints and must be portrayed as such. It has been observed that although consumers and garment designers are able to choose fabrics in terms of colour, style, trend, among others, most dressmakers overlook the need to match motifs in the fabric during garment construction. This study therefore aimed at improving the effective utilization of designed patterned fabrics in garment construction by providing a simple practicable repeatable learning methodology for Ghanaian dressmakers. To achieve this, the following objectives were set: to assess dressmaker’s level of competence (Skills and Knowledge) in designed fabric in garment construction; identify the various methodologies they use in garment construction; formulate an innovative fabric utilisation methodology that addresses the mismatching of motifs by the dressmakers and test the new methodology formulated through an expository workshop on some selected dressmakers to ascertain its efficacy. The study adopted qualitative approach and employed descriptive and action design to purposively and conveniently assess 63 dressmakers at Awoshie/Anyaa zone of GNDTA. The ADDIE instructional model was used as the framework in formulating the methodology. Data were collected using semi structured interviews and observation. Findings from the study revealed that majority of the dressmakers had no knowledge in pattern arrangement and lacked the skills in manipulating effectively motifs in the designed patterned fabrics to match in all the parts of garments. To stem the identified problems, innovative principles were formulated by the researcher and their efficacy tested during a series of workshops proved successful. It is recommended that the researcher in collaboration with GNDTA and textiles firms should frequently organize seminars, workshops and fora for dressmakers, textiles and fashion students in SHS, tertiary levels and make available a manual from the formulated principles.